A New Acoustic Portal into the Odontocete Ear and Vibrational Analysis of the Tympanoperiotic Complex
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{"title"=>"A new acoustic portal into the odontocete ear and vibrational analysis of the tympanoperiotic complex", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ted W.", "last_name"=>"Cranford", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506469260"}, {"first_name"=>"Petr", "last_name"=>"Krysl", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004227864"}, {"first_name"=>"Mats", "last_name"=>"Amundin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507665015"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"359742761", "sgr"=>"77957794709", "pmid"=>"20694149", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77957794709", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011927", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"d3422aa9-dfd3-314b-b9d0-ffa065b6e7fa", "abstract"=>"Global concern over the possible deleterious effects of noise on marine organisms was catalyzed when toothed whales stranded and died in the presence of high intensity sound. The lack of knowledge about mechanisms of hearing in toothed whales prompted our group to study the anatomy and build a finite element model to simulate sound reception in odontocetes. The primary auditory pathway in toothed whales is an evolutionary novelty, compensating for the impedance mismatch experienced by whale ancestors as they moved from hearing in air to hearing in water. The mechanism by which high-frequency vibrations pass from the low density fats of the lower jaw into the dense bones of the auditory apparatus is a key to understanding odontocete hearing. Here we identify a new acoustic portal into the ear complex, the tympanoperiotic complex (TPC) and a plausible mechanism by which sound is transduced into the bony components. We reveal the intact anatomic geometry using CT scanning, and test functional preconceptions using finite element modeling and vibrational analysis. We show that the mandibular fat bodies bifurcate posteriorly, attaching to the TPC in two distinct locations. The smaller branch is an inconspicuous, previously undescribed channel, a cone-shaped fat body that fits into a thin-walled bony funnel just anterior to the sigmoid process of the TPC. The TPC also contains regions of thin translucent bone that define zones of differential flexibility, enabling the TPC to bend in response to sound pressure, thus providing a mechanism for vibrations to pass through the ossicular chain. The techniques used to discover the new acoustic portal in toothed whales, provide a means to decipher auditory filtering, beam formation, impedance matching, and transduction. These tools can also be used to address concerns about the potential deleterious effects of high-intensity sound in a broad spectrum of marine organisms, from whales to fish.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-acoustic-portal-odontocete-ear-vibrational-analysis-tympanoperiotic-complex", "reader_count"=>92, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>15}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>2, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430458"], "description"=>"<p>The left image (A) shows an anterolateral view. The right image (B) is an inverted version of the first image, except that a portion of the medial aspect of the TPC was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. The periotic bone is salmon colored, the tympanic bone is cyan, and the ossicles are as follows: malleus = yellow, incus = magenta, stapes = green.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748928, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Two_views_of_the_left_TPC_from_i_Tursiops_truncatus_i_/2748928", "title"=>"Two views of the left TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430464"], "description"=>"<p>The left image, in this and the next seven figures, is a lateral view of the left TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>, reconstructed from micro-CT scans. The periotic bone is salmon colored, the tympanic bone is cyan, and the ossicles are: malleus = yellow, incus = magenta, stapes = green. The image on the right always shows the vibrational pattern, in this case calculated for the first natural mode of vibration at 8.1 kHz. The warm colors indicate the largest displacements of the elements and the cold colors represent the smallest displacements. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S17</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748931, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_vibrational_pattern_representing_the_1_sup_st_sup_natural_mode_of_vibration_at_8_1_kHz_/2748931", "title"=>"The vibrational pattern representing the 1<sup>st</sup> natural mode of vibration at 8.1 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430410"], "description"=>"<p>This volume has been reconstructed from CT scans of a Killer Whale (<i>Orcinus orca</i>) from the region around the TPC (0.3662 mm cubic voxels). As a consequence, the anterior boundary of the MFB has been artificially terminated at the anterior limit of the scanned volume. The entire head of this specimen was scanned and, as in all other odontocetes in this study, the MFB is continuous from the enlarged foramen of the mandible to its bifurcated attachment to the TPC (shown in this figure). The mandibular fat body is displayed as semi-transparent (blue), outlined in white dots, and overlies the TPC (yellow). The mallear ridge is indicated by the red dotted line. Other structures are as follows: P = periotic bone; TB = tympanic bulla; sp = sigmoid process; msmr = medial sulcus of the mallear ridge (bony funnel); mfb = mandibular fat body. The ventral branch of the MFB attaches to the tympanic bulla and the dorsal branch fits into the medial sulcus of the mallear ridge.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>507781, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lateral_view_of_the_left_TPC_and_corresponding_mandibular_fat_body_MFB_in_Orcinus_orca_/507781", "title"=>"Lateral view of the left TPC and corresponding mandibular fat body (MFB) in <i>Orcinus orca</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430479"], "description"=>"<p>This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S18</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748934, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_vibrational_pattern_representing_the_33_sup_rd_sup_natural_mode_of_vibration_at_65_5_kHz_/2748934", "title"=>"The vibrational pattern representing the 33<sup>rd</sup> natural mode of vibration at 65.5 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430497"], "description"=>"<p>This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S19</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748940, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g019", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_vibrational_pattern_representing_the_40_sup_th_sup_natural_mode_of_vibration_at_76_8_kHz_/2748940", "title"=>"The vibrational pattern representing the 40<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration at 76.8 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430506"], "description"=>"<p>This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S20</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748943, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g020", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_vibrational_pattern_representing_the_53_sup_rd_sup_natural_mode_of_vibration_at_92_5_kHz_/2748943", "title"=>"The vibrational pattern representing the 53<sup>rd</sup> natural mode of vibration at 92.5 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430344", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430395", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430392", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430389", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430386", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430383", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430380", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430377", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430374", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430371", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430368", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430365", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430362", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430359", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430356", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430353", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430350", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430347", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430398"], "description"=>"<div><p>Global concern over the possible deleterious effects of noise on marine organisms was catalyzed when toothed whales stranded and died in the presence of high intensity sound. The lack of knowledge about mechanisms of hearing in toothed whales prompted our group to study the anatomy and build a finite element model to simulate sound reception in odontocetes. The primary auditory pathway in toothed whales is an evolutionary novelty, compensating for the impedance mismatch experienced by whale ancestors as they moved from hearing in air to hearing in water. The mechanism by which high-frequency vibrations pass from the low density fats of the lower jaw into the dense bones of the auditory apparatus is a key to understanding odontocete hearing. Here we identify a new acoustic portal into the ear complex, the tympanoperiotic complex (TPC) and a plausible mechanism by which sound is transduced into the bony components. We reveal the intact anatomic geometry using CT scanning, and test functional preconceptions using finite element modeling and vibrational analysis. We show that the mandibular fat bodies bifurcate posteriorly, attaching to the TPC in two distinct locations. The smaller branch is an inconspicuous, previously undescribed channel, a cone-shaped fat body that fits into a thin-walled bony funnel just anterior to the sigmoid process of the TPC. The TPC also contains regions of thin translucent bone that define zones of differential flexibility, enabling the TPC to bend in response to sound pressure, thus providing a mechanism for vibrations to pass through the ossicular chain. The techniques used to discover the new acoustic portal in toothed whales, provide a means to decipher auditory filtering, beam formation, impedance matching, and transduction. These tools can also be used to address concerns about the potential deleterious effects of high-intensity sound in a broad spectrum of marine organisms, from whales to fish.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>142352, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.s019"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>96, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_New_Acoustic_Portal_into_the_Odontocete_Ear_and_Vibrational_Analysis_of_the_Tympanoperiotic_Complex/142352", "title"=>"A New Acoustic Portal into the Odontocete Ear and Vibrational Analysis of the Tympanoperiotic Complex", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430701"], "description"=>"<p>Vector arrows show the relative magnitude and direction of motions at the head of the stapes for each natural mode of vibration or resonant frequency (the frequency is indicated by the numbers at each arrowhead). The Z axis runs through the head of the stapes and is more or less perpendicular to the footplate, which is in the XY plane. Colors code for frequencies: cold colors are low-frequency and the warm colors are high-frequency. The numbers associated with the arrows indicate the corresponding frequency. Vibrational analysis produces results from calculations based on structure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>510226, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g037"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unique_motions_of_the_head_of_the_stapes_in_Cuvier_s_Beaked_Whale_Ziphius_cavirostris_/510226", "title"=>"Unique motions of the head of the stapes in Cuvier's Beaked Whale (<i>Ziphius cavirostris</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430638"], "description"=>"<p>This figure contains three additional panels for the reader that does not have facilities to display the animation sequences or are working from a (motionless) hard copy. The three panels show the two extremes of the oscillation sequence (A and C), as well as the midpoint of the sequence (B). By careful examination and comparison of these three panels, the reader should be able to understand the range of motion in the animation. The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 64<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s014\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S30</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509587, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g030"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_105_7_kHz_/509587", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 105.7 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430683"], "description"=>"<p>The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 105<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s018\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S34</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509972, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g034"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_146_4_kHz_/509972", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 146.4 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430512"], "description"=>"<p>This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S21</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748949, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g021", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_vibrational_pattern_representing_the_56_sup_th_sup_natural_mode_of_vibration_at_96_7_kHz_/2748949", "title"=>"The vibrational pattern representing the 56<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration at 96.7 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430620"], "description"=>"<p>The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 56<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s013\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S29</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509466, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g029"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_96_7_kHz_/509466", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 96.7 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430443"], "description"=>"<p>The accessory ossicle of the tympanic bone (TB) has been removed to more clearly demonstrate the relative position of the cochlear spiral (cs), the semicircular canals (sc), and the cochlear nerve (cn) or eighth nerve, all contained within the periotic (P) bone. The <i>scala vestibuli</i> (yellow) and <i>scala tympani</i> (red), components of the cochlear spiral, are shown in relationship to the semicircular canals (blue), the stapes (green), the (TB) tympanic bone (cyan) and the (P) periotic (salmon). Careful inspection of the stapes (st), near the tip of the white arrow, reveals a small dimple that represents the stapedial foramen. The floor of the medial sulcus of the mallear ridge, the “ear trumpet” or “bony funnel” (bf), which receives the (cone-shaped) dorsal branch of the mandibular fat body, is also shown in this view.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508571, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anterior_view_of_the_left_TPC_from_the_second_specimen_of_Tursiops_truncatus_/508571", "title"=>"Anterior view of the left TPC from the second specimen of <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430539"], "description"=>"<p>This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S24</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508956, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g024"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_vibrational_pattern_representing_the_117_th_natural_mode_of_vibration_at_157_8_kHz_/508956", "title"=>"The vibrational pattern representing the 117<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration at 157.8 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430428"], "description"=>"<p>The images were constructed using transparency to show the relationships between the various bones. The tympanic bone is colored cyan, and the ossicles are colored as follows: malleus = yellow, incus = magenta, stapes = green.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508189, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stereogram_of_a_dorsolateral_view_of_the_tympanic_bone_and_ossicles_from_Tursiops_truncatus_/508189", "title"=>"Stereogram of a dorsolateral view of the tympanic bone and ossicles from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430521"], "description"=>"<p>This figure contains three additional panels for the reader that does not have facilities to display the animation sequences or are working from a (motionless) hard copy. The three panels show the two extremes of the oscillation sequence (A and C), as well as the midpoint of the sequence (B). By careful examination and comparison of these three panels, the reader should be able to understand the range of motion in the animation. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S22</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508783, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g022"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_vibrational_pattern_representing_the_63_rd_natural_mode_of_vibration_at_104_8_kHz_/508783", "title"=>"The vibrational pattern representing the 63<sup>rd</sup> natural mode of vibration at 104.8 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430416"], "description"=>"<p>Each panel shows a transverse section, from CT scans, through the TPC (white), and both branches of the mandibular fat body (dark gray marked with red dots). Note that the lower branch of the MFB (lower red dot in each subpanel) attaches on the tympanic bulla. The upper branch of the MFB (upper red dot in each subpanel) fits into the funnel or notch between the tympanic and periotic bones. These examples span all major groups of odontocetes except sperm whales (Physeteroidae) and the eclectic “river dolphins” (Pontoporiidae + Platanistoidae). The panels are not scaled equally.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>507945, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_showing_the_bifurcated_mandibular_fat_body_indicated_by_red_dots_attached_to_the_TPC_/507945", "title"=>"Examples showing the bifurcated mandibular fat body (indicated by red dots) attached to the TPC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430695"], "description"=>"<p>Vector arrows show the relative magnitude and direction of motions at the head of the stapes for each natural mode of vibration or resonant frequency (the frequency is indicated by the numbers at each arrowhead). The Z axis runs through the head of the stapes and is more or less perpendicular to the footplate, which is in the XY plane. Colors code for frequencies: blue is low-frequency (on the order of 10 kHz), and red is high-frequency (∼60 kHz). Numbers associated with the arrows indicate the corresponding frequency. The vector arrows demonstrate that the complex vibrational patterns are unique for each natural mode of vibration and may be uniquely coded in the inner ear.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>510109, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g036"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unique_motions_of_the_head_of_the_stapes_in_the_Atlantic_Bottlenose_Dolphin_Tursiops_truncatus_/510109", "title"=>"Unique motions of the head of the stapes in the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin (<i>Tursiops truncatus</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430689"], "description"=>"<p>These differences span the range of frequencies that were calculated for the first 120 modes. It shows that adding a layer of soft tissue to the lateral aspect of the TPC (wet) causes a slight shift in the frequency.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>510058, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g035"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_difference_between_the_8220_wet_8221_black_crosses_and_8220_dry_8221_red_circles_vibrational_modes_/510058", "title"=>"The difference between the “wet” (black crosses) and “dry” (red circles) vibrational modes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430437"], "description"=>"<p>The tympanic bulla has been removed for easy viewing of the structures within the tympanic cavity. Structures are as follows: (A) Sigmoid process (the inside of a hollow tube); (B) Anterior (gracile) process of malleus; (C) Thinnest bony window of the medial sulcus of mallear ridge; (D) Keel of the medial sulcus of mallear ridge; (E) Thin window of the medial sulcus of mallear ridge; (F) Accessory ossicle (<i>processus tubarius</i>); (G) Desiccated portion of fibrous venous plexus; (H) <i>Pars cochlearis</i>; (I) Stapes; (J and K) Anterior ligament of the malleus; (L) Stapedial muscle; (M) Incus; (N) Tympanic ligament (homologous to the ancient tympanic membrane) where it attaches to the sigmoid process, a portion of the tympanic ring; (O) Round window (wherever possible the terminology follows Mead and Fordyce <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927-Hinton1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508473, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ventromedial_view_of_the_left_tympanoperiotic_complex_from_a_Pacific_White_sided_Dolphin_Lagenorhynchus_obliquidens_/508473", "title"=>"Ventromedial view of the left tympanoperiotic complex from a Pacific White-sided Dolphin (<i>Lagenorhynchus obliquidens</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430407"], "description"=>"<p>Skin = cyan, skull = ivory, teeth and mandibles = salmon, mandibular teeth = salmon, mandibular fat bodies = green, TPC's = red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>507708, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ventral_view_of_the_sound_reception_anatomy_in_Tursiops_truncatus_reconstructed_from_CT_scans_/507708", "title"=>"Ventral view of the sound reception anatomy in <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>, reconstructed from CT scans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430605"], "description"=>"<p>The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 49<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s012\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S28</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509373, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g028"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_87_7_kHz_/509373", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 87.7 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430674"], "description"=>"<p>The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 102<sup>nd</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s017\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S33</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509887, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g033"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_143_8_kHz_/509887", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 143.8 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430425"], "description"=>"<p>The images were constructed using transparency to show the ossicles of the middle ear. The periotic bone is salmon colored, the tympanic bone is colored cyan, and the ossicles are colored as follows: malleus = yellow, incus = magenta, stapes = green. (Stereogram viewing instructions: <a href=\"http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artsep00/pjstereo.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artsep00/pjstereo.html</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508096, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stereogram_of_lateral_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_/508096", "title"=>"Stereogram of lateral view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430527"], "description"=>"<p>This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S23</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508872, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g023"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_vibrational_pattern_representing_the_65_th_natural_mode_of_vibration_at_107_5_kHz_/508872", "title"=>"The vibrational pattern representing the 65<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration at 107.5 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430587"], "description"=>"<p>The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 40<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s011\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S27</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509264, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g027"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_76_8_kHz_/509264", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 76.8 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430710"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of frequencies associated with selected modes for two models of the TPC in <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>510291, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_frequencies_associated_with_selected_modes_for_two_models_of_the_TPC_in_Tursiops_truncatus_/510291", "title"=>"Comparison of frequencies associated with selected modes for two models of the TPC in <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430413"], "description"=>"<p>TB = tympanic bulla, pbs = peribullary sinus, cp = conical process of TPC, sp = sigmoid process of TPC, fvp = fibrous venous plexus, dfb = dorsal branch of the mandibular fat body. The white arrows point to fibers that tether the periotic bone to the periotic fossa of the basicranium (skull).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>507861, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Posteroventral_view_of_the_anatomy_around_the_right_TPC_in_Orcinus_orca_from_hand_dissection_/507861", "title"=>"Posteroventral view of the anatomy around the right TPC in <i>Orcinus orca</i>, from hand dissection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430659"], "description"=>"<p>The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 68<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s015\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S31</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509690, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g031"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_109_3_kHz_/509690", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 109.3 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430569"], "description"=>"<p>The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 34<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S26</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509160, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g026"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_67_1_kHz_/509160", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 67.1 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430434"], "description"=>"<p>This view is also a particularly good vantage point from which to view the structures that receive the dorsal branch of the mandibular fat body. Subtle, but potentially important, landmarks are: two very thin bony locations marked by the prominent red and blue circles. The S-shaped black dotted-line marks the mallear ridge. The shorter black dotted line marks the ridge along the accessory ossicle. The small red dotted-line marks the sulcus for the chorda tympani. The tympanic bone is colored cyan, and the ossicles are colored as follows: malleus = yellow, incus = magenta, stapes = green.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508394, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_view_of_the_tympanic_bone_and_ossicles_from_Tursiops_truncatus_/508394", "title"=>"Dorsal view of the tympanic bone and ossicles from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430548"], "description"=>"<p>The left image, in this and the next ten figures, is an inverted medial view of the left TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>, reconstructed from micro-CT scans. The periotic bone is salmon colored, the tympanic bone is cyan, and the ossicles are: malleus = yellow, incus = magenta, stapes = green. The image on the right always shows the vibrational pattern, in this case calculated for the first natural mode of vibration at 32.1 kHz, the 11<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. The entire TPC was included during the numerical analysis calculations, but the medial portion was later removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. Warm colors indicate the largest displacements of the elements and the cold colors represent the smallest displacements. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S25</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509038, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g025"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_32_1_kHz_/509038", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 32.1 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430668"], "description"=>"<p>The entire TPC was included during the calculation, but the medial portion was removed to facilitate viewing the middle ear ossicles. This simulated vibrational pattern represents the 79<sup>th</sup> natural mode of vibration. This figure is linked to the animation sequence that depicts the vibrational mode (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#pone.0011927.s016\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S32</a>). The vibrations have been exaggerated for easier viewing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>509807, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g032"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_inverted_view_of_the_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_at_122_3_kHz_/509807", "title"=>"An inverted view of the TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> at 122.3 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430446"], "description"=>"<p>This is a backlit view through the translucent floor of the ear trumpet (sulcus of mallear ridge). M = malleus; I = incus; sp = sigmoid process; lta = lower tympanic aperture. The black dotted line indicates the anterior border of the sigmoid process. The black dashed line represents the ankylosed (fused) border between the malleus and the tympanic bone. The various colored dots represent locations where the thickness of the bone was measured. Red = 0.26 mm, Blue = 0.36 mm, Black = 0.43 mm; Green = 0.79 mm; Cyan = 0.89 mm. The scale bar represents 5 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748913, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_view_from_inside_the_tympanic_cavity_of_i_Lagenorhynchus_obliquidens_i_/2748913", "title"=>"A view from inside the tympanic cavity of <i>Lagenorhynchus obliquidens</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430452"], "description"=>"<p>The bright field in the center of the image shows the thin, funnel-shaped bony receptacle that receives the dorsal branch of the mandibular fat body, and together form the “ear trumpet.” The funnel resembles a river valley that is bounded by the mallear ridge (blue dots) laterally and the accessory ossicle (ao) medially. This unique view was created by inserting a light source (L) into a hole in the lateral wall of the tympanic bulla (TB) just below the sigmoid process (sp). The blue dots trace the course of the mallear ridge. The white arrow points to a piece of copper wire (0.23 mm diameter) used to indicate the approximate path of the sulcus for the chorda tympani (a nerve that branches off of the facial nerve, Cranial Nerve VII). P = periotic bone; pr = parabullary ridge of the periotic bone.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748919, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Backlit_view_of_the_right_TPC_from_i_Lagenorhynchus_obliquidens_i_/2748919", "title"=>"Backlit view of the right TPC from <i>Lagenorhynchus obliquidens</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430455"], "description"=>"<p>The rest of the boundary is either dry or immobile (i.e., parts of the periotic bone) and hence ignored in the wet-mode analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>2748922, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mesh_of_the_wet_boundary_layer_red_that_approximates_soft_tissue_/2748922", "title"=>"Mesh of the wet boundary layer (red) that approximates soft tissue.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430431"], "description"=>"<p>The images were constructed using transparency to show the relationships between the bones. The tympanic bone is colored cyan, and the ossicles are colored as follows: malleus = yellow, incus = magenta, stapes = green. This view is a particularly good vantage point from which to view the structures that receive the dorsal branch of the mandibular fat body.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508285, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stereogram_of_a_dorsal_view_of_the_tympanic_bone_and_ossicles_from_Tursiops_truncatus_/508285", "title"=>"Stereogram of a dorsal view of the tympanic bone and ossicles from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430419"], "description"=>"<p>P = periotic bone; TB = tympanic bulla; eh = epitympanic hiatus; pr = parabullary ridge; ao = accessory ossicle; sp = sigmoid process; mr = mallear ridge (yellow dots); sct = sulcus for the chorda tympani (red dots). The scale bar represents approximately 3 cm. It is meant to give the reader an impression of the approximate size of the TPC and is not to be used to measure from point to point, considering that this is 3-D topography projected onto a 2-D plane. All TPC images of <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> shown in this report were reconstructed from micro-CT scans (45 micron cubic voxels).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>508030, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lateral_view_of_the_left_TPC_from_Tursiops_truncatus_reconstructed_from_micro_CT_scans_showing_major_landmarks_/508030", "title"=>"Lateral view of the left TPC from <i>Tursiops truncatus</i> reconstructed from micro-CT scans, showing major landmarks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430401"], "description"=>"<p>Skull = ivory, maxillary teeth = orange, mandibles = ivory, mandibular teeth = salmon, left mandibular fat body = green, left TPC = red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TPC", "marine organisms", "toothed whales", "Tympanoperiotic Complex Global concern", "understanding odontocete hearing", "New Acoustic Portal", "auditory", "CT", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>507631, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ted W. Cranford", "Petr Krysl", "Mats Amundin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011927.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_lateral_view_of_the_Atlantic_Bottlenose_Dolphin_Tursiops_truncatus_from_CT_reconstructions_/507631", "title"=>"Left lateral view of the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin (<i>Tursiops truncatus</i>) from CT reconstructions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-04 13:27:15"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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