Continued Decline of Malaria in The Gambia with Implications for Elimination
Publication Date
August 18, 2010
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Serign J. Ceesay, Climent Casals Pascual, Davis C. Nwakanma, Michael Walther, et al
Volume
5
Issue
8
Pages
e12242
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012242
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805878
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923605
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20805878
Web of Science
000281011600016
Scopus
77957914203
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/continued-decline-malaria-gambia-implications-elimination
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Continued decline of malaria in The Gambia with implications for elimination", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Serign J.", "last_name"=>"Ceesay", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701756349"}, {"first_name"=>"Climent", "last_name"=>"Casals-Pascual", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506153671"}, {"first_name"=>"Davis C.", "last_name"=>"Nwakanma", "scopus_author_id"=>"23091478500"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Walther", "scopus_author_id"=>"55441411500"}, {"first_name"=>"Natalia", "last_name"=>"Gomez-Escobar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506961939"}, {"first_name"=>"Anthony J C", "last_name"=>"Fulford", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003346926"}, {"first_name"=>"Ebako N.", "last_name"=>"Takem", "scopus_author_id"=>"26667341200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah", "last_name"=>"Nogaro", "scopus_author_id"=>"36553081100"}, {"first_name"=>"Kalifa A.", "last_name"=>"Bojang", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701577797"}, {"first_name"=>"Tumani", "last_name"=>"Corrah", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003269788"}, {"first_name"=>"Momodou Cherno", "last_name"=>"Jaye", "scopus_author_id"=>"36552441400"}, {"first_name"=>"Makie Abdoulie", "last_name"=>"Taal", "scopus_author_id"=>"55166835500"}, {"first_name"=>"Aja Adam Jagne", "last_name"=>"Sonko", "scopus_author_id"=>"36553291100"}, {"first_name"=>"David J.", "last_name"=>"Conway", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102790706"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"359761528", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0012242", "sgr"=>"77957914203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77957914203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"20805878"}, "id"=>"4ae979f8-28a6-3cba-974a-1233ebc166da", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: A substantial decline in malaria was reported to have occurred over several years until 2007 in the western part of The Gambia, encouraging consideration of future elimination in this previously highly endemic region. Scale up of interventions has since increased with support from the Global Fund and other donors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We continued to examine laboratory records at four health facilities previously studied and investigated six additional facilities for a 7 year period, adding data from 243,707 slide examinations, to determine trends throughout the country until the end of 2009. We actively detected infections in a community cohort of 800 children living in rural villages throughout the 2008 malaria season, and assayed serological changes in another rural population between 2006 and 2009. Proportions of malaria positive slides declined significantly at all of the 10 health facilities between 2003 (annual mean across all sites, 38.7%) and 2009 (annual mean, 7.9%). Statistical modelling of trends confirmed significant seasonality and decline over time at each facility. Slide positivity was lowest in 2009 at all sites, except two where lowest levels were observed in 2006. Mapping households of cases presenting at the latter sites in 2007-2009 indicated that these were not restricted to a few residual foci. Only 2.8% (22/800) of a rural cohort of children had a malaria episode in the 2008 season, and there was substantial serological decline between 2006 and 2009 in a separate rural area. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria has continued to decline in The Gambia, as indicated by a downward trend in slide positivity at health facilities, and unprecedented low incidence and seroprevalence in community surveys. We recommend intensification of control interventions for several years to further reduce incidence, prior to considering an elimination programme.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/continued-decline-malaria-gambia-implications-elimination", "reader_count"=>79, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. 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Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>10, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>10}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Pakistan"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Tanzania"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>10}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835164"], "description"=>"<p>Proportions with detectable serum IgG to the MSP-1<sub>19</sub> antigen are plotted by age group (numbers in 2006 and 2009 respectively sampled from each age group: 0–4 years, n = 35 and 17; 5–9 years, n = 31 and 19; 10–14 years, n = 31 and 17; 15–24 years, n = 19 and 13; 25–39 years, n = 46 and 17; >39 years, 49 and 15).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["surveys", "malaria", "brefet", "december", "2006", "2009"], "article_id"=>505513, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Cancer", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Serign J. Ceesay", "Climent Casals-Pascual", "Davis C. Nwakanma", "Michael Walther", "Natalia Gomez-Escobar", "Anthony J. C. Fulford", "Ebako N. Takem", "Sarah Nogaro", "Kalifa A. Bojang", "Tumani Corrah", "Momodou Cherno Jaye", "Makie Abdoulie Taal", "Aja Adam Jagne Sonko", "David J. Conway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Serological_surveys_of_malaria_in_Brefet_village_at_the_end_of_annual_malaria_seasons_December_2006_n_8202_8202_211_and_December_2009_n_8202_8202_98_/505513", "title"=>"Serological surveys of malaria in Brefet village at the end of annual malaria seasons, December 2006 (n = 211) and December 2009 (n = 98).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:31:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415815"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>A substantial decline in malaria was reported to have occurred over several years until 2007 in the western part of The Gambia, encouraging consideration of future elimination in this previously highly endemic region. Scale up of interventions has since increased with support from the Global Fund and other donors.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We continued to examine laboratory records at four health facilities previously studied and investigated six additional facilities for a 7 year period, adding data from 243,707 slide examinations, to determine trends throughout the country until the end of 2009. We actively detected infections in a community cohort of 800 children living in rural villages throughout the 2008 malaria season, and assayed serological changes in another rural population between 2006 and 2009. Proportions of malaria positive slides declined significantly at all of the 10 health facilities between 2003 (annual mean across all sites, 38.7%) and 2009 (annual mean, 7.9%). Statistical modelling of trends confirmed significant seasonality and decline over time at each facility. Slide positivity was lowest in 2009 at all sites, except two where lowest levels were observed in 2006. Mapping households of cases presenting at the latter sites in 2007–2009 indicated that these were not restricted to a few residual foci. Only 2.8% (22/800) of a rural cohort of children had a malaria episode in the 2008 season, and there was substantial serological decline between 2006 and 2009 in a separate rural area.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Malaria has continued to decline in The Gambia, as indicated by a downward trend in slide positivity at health facilities, and unprecedented low incidence and seroprevalence in community surveys. We recommend intensification of control interventions for several years to further reduce incidence, prior to considering an elimination programme.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria", "gambia", "implications", "elimination"], "article_id"=>142100, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cancer", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Serign J. Ceesay", "Climent Casals-Pascual", "Davis C. Nwakanma", "Michael Walther", "Natalia Gomez-Escobar", "Anthony J. C. Fulford", "Ebako N. Takem", "Sarah Nogaro", "Kalifa A. Bojang", "Tumani Corrah", "Momodou Cherno Jaye", "Makie Abdoulie Taal", "Aja Adam Jagne Sonko", "David J. Conway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Continued_Decline_of_Malaria_in_The_Gambia_with_Implications_for_Elimination/142100", "title"=>"Continued Decline of Malaria in The Gambia with Implications for Elimination", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 00:35:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835002"], "description"=>"<p>Map of household locations of 285 malaria cases sampled from those presenting to the Fajara MRC clinic and Brikama Health Centre in three conseculive malaria seasons 2007 to 2009. Cases presenting to Fajara are represented as circular symbols, and those presenting to Brikama are represented with square symbols.The locations of these two health facilities are shown (green crosses), along with the most densely populated areas (shaded in yellow).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cases", "facilities"], "article_id"=>505359, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Cancer", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Serign J. Ceesay", "Climent Casals-Pascual", "Davis C. Nwakanma", "Michael Walther", "Natalia Gomez-Escobar", "Anthony J. C. Fulford", "Ebako N. Takem", "Sarah Nogaro", "Kalifa A. Bojang", "Tumani Corrah", "Momodou Cherno Jaye", "Makie Abdoulie Taal", "Aja Adam Jagne Sonko", "David J. Conway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_distribution_of_cases_at_two_health_facilities_in_the_coastal_area_/505359", "title"=>"Spatial distribution of cases at two health facilities in the coastal area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:29:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835240"], "description"=>"<p>Modelling of seasonality and average annual decline in numbers of malaria positive slides at each of the 10 health facilities studied in The Gambia</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["seasonality", "numbers", "malaria", "slides", "10", "facilities", "studied"], "article_id"=>505593, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Cancer", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Serign J. Ceesay", "Climent Casals-Pascual", "Davis C. Nwakanma", "Michael Walther", "Natalia Gomez-Escobar", "Anthony J. C. Fulford", "Ebako N. Takem", "Sarah Nogaro", "Kalifa A. Bojang", "Tumani Corrah", "Momodou Cherno Jaye", "Makie Abdoulie Taal", "Aja Adam Jagne Sonko", "David J. Conway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modelling_of_seasonality_and_average_annual_decline_in_numbers_of_malaria_positive_slides_at_each_of_the_10_health_facilities_studied_in_The_Gambia_/505593", "title"=>"Modelling of seasonality and average annual decline in numbers of malaria positive slides at each of the 10 health facilities studied in The Gambia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:33:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834884"], "description"=>"<p>Monthly numbers (left panel) and annual proportions (right panel) of malaria positive slides from January 2003 to December 2009 at (a) Fajara MRC outpatient clinic, (b) Brikama Health Centre, (c) Farafenni AFPRC Hospital, and (d) Keneba MRC clinic.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "facilities", "gambia", "had", "been", "surveyed"], "article_id"=>505226, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Cancer", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Serign J. Ceesay", "Climent Casals-Pascual", "Davis C. Nwakanma", "Michael Walther", "Natalia Gomez-Escobar", "Anthony J. C. Fulford", "Ebako N. Takem", "Sarah Nogaro", "Kalifa A. Bojang", "Tumani Corrah", "Momodou Cherno Jaye", "Makie Abdoulie Taal", "Aja Adam Jagne Sonko", "David J. Conway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Malaria_trends_during_2003_8211_2009_at_4_health_facilities_in_The_Gambia_that_had_been_previously_surveyed_until_2007_/505226", "title"=>"Malaria trends during 2003–2009 at 4 health facilities in The Gambia that had been previously surveyed until 2007.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:27:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834757"], "description"=>"<p>Monthly numbers (left panel) and annual proportions (right panel) of malaria positive slides from January 2003 to December 2009 at (a) Fajikunda Health Centre (b) Serekunda Health Centre, (c) Soma Health Centre, (d) Basse Hospital, (e) Bansang Hospital, and (f) Bwiam Hospital.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "newly-surveyed", "facilities"], "article_id"=>505106, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Cancer", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Serign J. Ceesay", "Climent Casals-Pascual", "Davis C. Nwakanma", "Michael Walther", "Natalia Gomez-Escobar", "Anthony J. C. Fulford", "Ebako N. Takem", "Sarah Nogaro", "Kalifa A. Bojang", "Tumani Corrah", "Momodou Cherno Jaye", "Makie Abdoulie Taal", "Aja Adam Jagne Sonko", "David J. Conway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Malaria_trends_during_2003_8211_2009_at_6_newly_surveyed_health_facilities_in_The_Gambia_/505106", "title"=>"Malaria trends during 2003–2009 at 6 newly-surveyed health facilities in The Gambia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:25:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834618"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Sites of 10 health facilities at which laboratory slide data were analysed (circular symbols indicate 4 sites previously studied until the end of 2007, square symbols indicate 6 sites not previously studied); sites of the Farafenni village cluster and Brefet village are marked with triangular symbols. (b) Monthly rainfall for two sites at opposite ends of the country (Banjul at the coast in the west and Basse in the east) over the 7 year period. (c) Changes in first-line antimalarial therapy and Global Fund support for malaria control over the period. First-line therapy: CQ, Chloroquine; SP, Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine; AL, Artemether-Lumefantrine. The Global Fund has supported Insecticide treated bednet (ITN) provision for children 5 years of age and pregnant women, and intermittent preventative treatment with SP during pregnancy (IPTp) under Round 3 from 2004 onwards (Western Region) and Round 6 from 2007 onwards (countrywide), as well as the purchase of AL (Coartem) to allow free treatment with an effective artemisinin-based combination therapy from 2008 onwards. Coverage of interventions countrywide by the midpoint year (2006) reached 50% for ITN use by children under 5 years of age and 30% for receipt of at least 2 doses of IPTp <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242#pone.0012242-MICS1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["facilities", "populations", "rainfall", "patterns", "malaria", "2003", "2009"], "article_id"=>504959, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Cancer", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Serign J. Ceesay", "Climent Casals-Pascual", "Davis C. Nwakanma", "Michael Walther", "Natalia Gomez-Escobar", "Anthony J. C. Fulford", "Ebako N. Takem", "Sarah Nogaro", "Kalifa A. Bojang", "Tumani Corrah", "Momodou Cherno Jaye", "Makie Abdoulie Taal", "Aja Adam Jagne Sonko", "David J. Conway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012242.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_health_facilities_and_populations_surveyed_rainfall_patterns_and_Global_Fund_support_for_malaria_control_from_2003_to_2009_in_The_Gambia_/504959", "title"=>"Location of health facilities and populations surveyed, rainfall patterns and Global Fund support for malaria control from 2003 to 2009 in The Gambia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:22:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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