A Combined Epigenetic and Non-Genetic Approach for Reprogramming Human Somatic Cells
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A combined epigenetic and non-genetic approach for reprogramming human somatic cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jinnuo", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"36552594900"}, {"first_name"=>"Perminder S.", "last_name"=>"Sachdev", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102284091"}, {"first_name"=>"Kuldip S.", "last_name"=>"Sidhu", "scopus_author_id"=>"35576201900"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"77957895936", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0012297", "pui"=>"359761489", "pmid"=>"20808872", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77957895936", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"481e0355-95d4-3975-818b-f45debeb2281", "abstract"=>"Reprogramming of somatic cells to different extents has been reported using different methods. However, this is normally accompanied by the use of exogenous materials, and the overall reprogramming efficiency has been low. Chemicals and small molecules have been used to improve the reprogramming process during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell generation. We report here the first application of a combined epigenetic and non-genetic approach for reprogramming somatic cells, i.e., DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and human embryonic stem cell (hESC) extracts. When somatic cells were pretreated with these inhibitors before exposure to hESC (MEL1) extracts, morphological analysis revealed a higher rate of hESC-like colony formation than without pretreatment. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated that pluripotency genes were upregulated when compared to those of somatic cells or treated with hESC extracts alone. Overall changes in methylation and acetylation levels of pretreated somatic cells suggests that epigenetic states of the cells have an effect on reprogramming efficiency induced by hESC extracts. KnockOutserum replacement (KOSR) medium (KO-SR) played a positive role in inducing expression of the pluripotency genes. hESC extracts could be an alternative approach to reprogram somatic cells without introducing exogenous materials. The epigenetic pre-treatment of somatic cells could be used to improve the efficiency of reprogramming process. Under differentiation conditions, the reprogrammed cells exhibited differentiation ability into neurons suggesting that, although fully reprogramming was not achieved, the cells could be transdifferentiated after reprogramming.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/combined-epigenetic-nongenetic-approach-reprogramming-human-somatic-cells", "reader_count"=>102, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>77, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>77}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>5, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77957895936"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77957895936?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=77957895936&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=77957895936&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77957895936", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:77957895936", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-77957895936", "dc:title"=>"A combined epigenetic and non-genetic approach for reprogramming human somatic cells", "dc:creator"=>"Han J.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"5", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2010-10-20", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"2010", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0012297", "citedby-count"=>"40", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of New South Wales (UNSW) Australia", "affiliation-city"=>"Sydney", "affiliation-country"=>"Australia"}], "pubmed-id"=>"20808872", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e12297", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0012297", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"132", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"358"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"368", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"638"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"93", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"110", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"194"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"102"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"0"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415695", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415722", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415742", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415765", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415791"], "description"=>"<div><p>Reprogramming of somatic cells to different extents has been reported using different methods. However, this is normally accompanied by the use of exogenous materials, and the overall reprogramming efficiency has been low. Chemicals and small molecules have been used to improve the reprogramming process during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell generation. We report here the first application of a combined epigenetic and non-genetic approach for reprogramming somatic cells, i.e., DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and human embryonic stem cell (hESC) extracts. When somatic cells were pretreated with these inhibitors before exposure to hESC (MEL1) extracts, morphological analysis revealed a higher rate of hESC-like colony formation than without pretreatment. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated that pluripotency genes were upregulated when compared to those of somatic cells or treated with hESC extracts alone. Overall changes in methylation and acetylation levels of pretreated somatic cells suggests that epigenetic states of the cells have an effect on reprogramming efficiency induced by hESC extracts. KnockOutserum replacement (KOSR™) medium (KO-SR) played a positive role in inducing expression of the pluripotency genes. hESC extracts could be an alternative approach to reprogram somatic cells without introducing exogenous materials. The epigenetic pre-treatment of somatic cells could be used to improve the efficiency of reprogramming process. Under differentiation conditions, the reprogrammed cells exhibited differentiation ability into neurons suggesting that, although fully reprogramming was not achieved, the cells could be transdifferentiated after reprogramming.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epigenetic", "non-genetic", "Reprogramming", "somatic", "cells"], "article_id"=>142088, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Jinnuo Han", "Perminder S. Sachdev", "Kuldip S. Sidhu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Combined_Epigenetic_and_Non_Genetic_Approach_for_Reprogramming_Human_Somatic_Cells/142088", "title"=>"A Combined Epigenetic and Non-Genetic Approach for Reprogramming Human Somatic Cells", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-19 00:34:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835371"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Pluripotency marker NANOG and OCT4 were induced in HFFs after reprogramming. (B), (C) and (D) qPCR analysis of pluripotency-related gene and apoptotic gene expression in controls and reprogrammed HFFs. The gene expression levels were normalized to the <i>GAPDH</i> and compared relative to gene expression in control HFFs. Error bar, S.D., <sup>*</sup>P<0.05, <sup>***</sup>P<0.001 (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes", "hffs", "Reprogramming"], "article_id"=>505740, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Jinnuo Han", "Perminder S. Sachdev", "Kuldip S. Sidhu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protein_and_gene_expression_changes_of_HFFs_after_reprogramming_treatment_/505740", "title"=>"Protein and gene expression changes of HFFs after reprogramming treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-19 01:35:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835059"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Acetylation level of H3K9 was increased in HFFs after hESC extract treatment. (B) Immunoblotting analysis of 5-methyl cytosine. (C) Immunoblotting analysis of H3K9 acetylation levels. In A and C, lane 1 to 5 were loaded with proteins (2 µg) from hESCs, HFFs, HFFs treated with own extract or hESC extract, and negative control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epigenetic", "changes", "hffs", "days", "hesc", "extract"], "article_id"=>505425, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Jinnuo Han", "Perminder S. Sachdev", "Kuldip S. Sidhu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_epigenetic_changes_in_HFFs_7_days_after_hESC_extract_treatment_/505425", "title"=>"Global epigenetic changes in HFFs 7 days after hESC extract treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-19 01:30:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835151"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Bisulfite sequencing of <i>NANOG</i> and (B) <i>OCT4</i> promoter region. Black circles represent methylated sites, white circles represent unmethylated sites. Global methylated cytosines are shown as %M. (C) qPCR analysis of <i>NANOG</i>, <i>OCT4</i> and <i>SOX2</i> and (D) <i>KLF4</i> and <i>c-MYC</i> expression in controls and HFFs with chemical treatment in different culture medium. The gene expression levels were normalized to the <i>GAPDH</i> and compared relative to gene expression in control HFFs. Error bar, S.D., <sup>*</sup>P<0.05, <sup>***</sup>P<0.001 (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epigenetic", "modifications"], "article_id"=>505524, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Jinnuo Han", "Perminder S. Sachdev", "Kuldip S. Sidhu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_epigenetic_modifications_on_HFFs_/505524", "title"=>"Effects of epigenetic modifications on HFFs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-19 01:32:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835258"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Morphological changes of HFFs elicited by DNMT and HDAC inhibitors and hESC extracts. HFFs in mTeSR (a) or with inhibitor treatment prior to hESC extract exposure on day 3 (b), day 7 (c), day 10 (d) and at passage 2 (e). (B) Immunoblotting analysis shows decrease in 5-methyl cytosine and increase in H3K9 acetylation levels after combined treatment. Lanes 1 to 5 were loaded with proteins (2 µg) from HFFs, hESCs, inhibitor treated HFFs and combined treated HFFs. (C) Immunostaining analysis shows increased H3K9 acetylation levels in HFFs after DNMT/HDAC inhibitor or combined treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epigenetic", "changes", "hffs", "inhibitor", "hesc", "extract"], "article_id"=>505625, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Jinnuo Han", "Perminder S. Sachdev", "Kuldip S. Sidhu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_and_epigenetic_changes_of_HFFs_after_inhibitor_and_or_hESC_extract_treatment_/505625", "title"=>"Morphological and epigenetic changes of HFFs after inhibitor and/or hESC extract treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-19 01:33:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835650"], "description"=>"<p>STR analysis of hESCs, HFFs and reprogrammed cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hffs", "reprogrammed"], "article_id"=>506024, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Jinnuo Han", "Perminder S. Sachdev", "Kuldip S. Sidhu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_STR_analysis_of_hESCs_HFFs_and_reprogrammed_cells_/506024", "title"=>"STR analysis of hESCs, HFFs and reprogrammed cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-19 01:40:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834944"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Morphology of HFFs treated with its own extract (a) or hESC extract on day 3 (b), day 10 (c) and passage 2 (d). (B) OCT4 expression was induced in hESC extract-treated HFFs on day 7. (C) LAMIN A/C was demolished in hESC extract-treated HFFs on day 7. (D) Imunoblotting analysis of NANOG, OCT4 and LAMIN A/C expression on day 7. Lanes from 1 to 6 were loaded with proteins (2 µg) from HFFs, hESCs, hESC extract and HFF extract-treated HFFs, water and hESC extracts. (E) Expression of <i>OCT4</i>, <i>NANOG</i>, <i>SOX2</i>, <i>KLF4</i> and <i>C-MYC</i> were upregulated in hESC extract-treated HFFs after 7 days of hESC extract treatment. The gene expression levels were normalized to the <i>GAPDH</i> and compared relative to gene expression in control HFFs. Error bar, S.D., <sup>***</sup>P<0.001 (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes", "hffs", "induced", "hesc", "extract"], "article_id"=>505308, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Jinnuo Han", "Perminder S. Sachdev", "Kuldip S. Sidhu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_protein_and_gene_expression_changes_in_HFFs_induced_by_hESC_extract_treatment_/505308", "title"=>"Morphological, protein and gene expression changes in HFFs induced by hESC extract treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-19 01:28:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835520"], "description"=>"<p>(A) immunostaining of protein expression (B) RT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in hESCs and reprogrammed cells during the differentiation process.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuronal", "markers", "directed"], "article_id"=>505887, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Jinnuo Han", "Perminder S. Sachdev", "Kuldip S. Sidhu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012297.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_neuronal_markers_upon_directed_differentiation_/505887", "title"=>"Expression of neuronal markers upon directed differentiation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-19 01:38:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"259", "unique-ip"=>"209", "pdf"=>"182", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"36", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"177", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"123", "unique-ip"=>"158", "figure"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"189", "unique-ip"=>"182", "pdf"=>"135", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"23", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"119", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"98", "unique-ip"=>"113", "figure"=>"35", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"104", "unique-ip"=>"84", "pdf"=>"51", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"116", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"48", "unique-ip"=>"100", "figure"=>"26", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"84", "unique-ip"=>"86", "pdf"=>"61", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"64", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"47", "unique-ip"=>"62", "figure"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"57", "unique-ip"=>"61", "pdf"=>"43", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"43", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"43", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"22", "unique-ip"=>"38", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"22", "pdf"=>"18", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"37", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"34", "figure"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"30", "unique-ip"=>"30", "pdf"=>"17", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"30", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"32", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"26", "unique-ip"=>"28", "pdf"=>"20", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"23", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"23", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"21", "unique-ip"=>"22", "pdf"=>"17", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"31", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"28", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"24", "unique-ip"=>"23", "pdf"=>"16", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"32", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"25", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"22", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"14", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"18", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"17", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[283, 565, 720, 852, 970, 1070, 1168, 1258, 1336, 1411, 1487, 1571, 1640, 1709, 1776, 1843, 1906, 1969, 2031, 2086, 2152, 2221, 2286, 2361, 2419, 2480, 2543, 2598, 2665, 2731, 2802, 2868, 2932, 2996, 3053, 3114, 3169, 3232, 3289, 3355, 3413, 3473, 3530, 3595, 3648, 3711, 3764, 3810, 3863]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[265, 560, 722, 863, 978, 1083, 1172, 1261, 1345, 1428, 1488, 1559, 1630, 1701, 1764, 1840, 1899, 1965, 2028, 2088, 2150, 2211, 2270, 2348, 2410, 2461, 2531, 2598, 2645, 2719, 2793, 2870, 2923, 2974, 3020, 3080, 3142, 3198, 3259, 3351, 3418, 3471, 3527, 3581, 3637, 3706, 3761, 3817, 3872]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[286, 543, 687, 806, 915, 1004, 1092, 1169, 1234, 1309, 1372, 1435, 1502, 1563, 1627, 1685, 1747, 1796, 1859, 1921, 1977, 2032, 2093, 2157, 2210, 2278, 2333, 2406, 2463, 2535, 2590, 2642, 2692, 2753, 2813, 2872, 2941, 2989, 3040, 3080, 3151, 3218, 3269, 3323, 3375, 3437, 3500, 3550, 3604]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts