Archaeological Support for the Three-Stage Expansion of Modern Humans across Northeastern Eurasia and into the Americas
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{"title"=>"Archaeological support for the three-stage expansion of modern humans across northeastern Eurasia and into the Americas", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marcus J.", "last_name"=>"Hamilton", "scopus_author_id"=>"8578778600"}, {"first_name"=>"Briggs", "last_name"=>"Buchanan", "scopus_author_id"=>"11241802300"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"359771495", "sgr"=>"77957950927", "pmid"=>"20814574", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77957950927", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0012472", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"92f0d2ed-feef-3b3b-a6dd-503c5357152e", "abstract"=>"<sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Understanding the dynamics of the human range expansion across northeastern Eurasia during the late Pleistocene is central to establishing empirical temporal constraints on the colonization of the Americas <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Goebel1\">[1]</xref>. Opinions vary widely on how and when the Americas were colonized, with advocates supporting either a pre-<xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Madsen1\">[2]</xref> or post-<xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Goebel1\">[1]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Dixon1\">[3]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-ORourke1\">[4]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Bradley1\">[5]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Hamilton1\">[6]</xref> last glacial maximum (LGM) colonization, via either a land bridge across Beringia <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Dixon1\">[3]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-ORourke1\">[4]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Bradley1\">[5]</xref>, a sea-faring Pacific Rim coastal route <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Goebel1\">[1]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Dixon1\">[3]</xref>, a trans-Arctic route <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-ORourke1\">[4]</xref>, or a trans-Atlantic oceanic route <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Bradley1\">[5]</xref>. Here we analyze a large sample of radiocarbon dates from the northeast Eurasian Upper Paleolithic to identify the origin of this expansion, and estimate the velocity of colonization wave as it moved across northern Eurasia and into the Americas.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>We use diffusion models <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Hamilton1\">[6]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Fort1\">[7]</xref> to quantify these dynamics. Our results show the expansion originated in the Altai region of southern Siberia ∼46kBP , and from there expanded across northern Eurasia at an average velocity of 0.16 km per year. However, the movement of the colonizing wave was not continuous but underwent three distinct phases: 1) an initial expansion from 47-32k calBP; 2) a hiatus from ∼32-16k calBP, and 3) a second expansion after the LGM ∼16k calBP. These results provide archaeological support for the recently proposed three-stage model of the colonization of the Americas <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Kitchen1\">[8]</xref>, <xref ref-type=\"bibr\" rid=\"pone.0012472-Mulligan1\">[9]</xref>. Our results falsify the hypothesis of a pre-LGM terrestrial colonization of the Americas and we discuss the importance of these empirical results in the light of alternative models.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusions/Significance</title> <p>Our results demonstrate that the radiocarbon record of Upper Paleolithic northeastern Eurasia supports a post-LGM terrestrial colonization of the Americas falsifying the proposed pre-LGM terrestrial colonization of the Americas. We show that this expansion was not a simple process, but proceeded in three phases, consistent with genetic data, largely in response to the variable climatic conditions of late Pleistocene northeast Eurasia. Further, the constraints imposed by the spatiotemporal gradient in the empirical radiocarbon record across this entire region suggests that North America cannot have been colonized much before the existing Clovis radiocarbon record suggests.</p> </sec>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/archaeological-support-threestage-expansion-modern-humans-across-northeastern-eurasia-americas", "reader_count"=>87, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>20, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>22, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>22}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>20}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Uruguay"=>2, "Brazil"=>2, "France"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833097"], "description"=>"<p>Dashed lines are approximate boundaries of the extent of settlement based on dated archaeological sites, and solid arrows are hypothesized population movements. A) The initial expansion into southern Siberia from central Asia is relatively uncontroversial. B) Similarly, the expansion from southern Siberia to far-western Beringia by ∼30k calBP is uncontroversial. C) Three proposed pre-LGM colonization routes include coastal, terrestrial, and trans-Arctic routes, however, currently there are no archaeological sites beyond western Beringia to support these routes. D) Post-LGM models include the traditional trans-Beringian route, and a coastal route. The trans-Beringian route is the best supported by current archaeological data, and there is no archaeological evidence to suggest the coastal route was a major factor in colonization, albeit complicated by Holocene sea level rise along the Pacific Rim. However, it is entirely feasible that as colonists expanded across the Beringian mainland local groups close to the southern coast may have included aquatic resources in the diet. However, there is no evidence of full maritime cultures anywhere along the Pacific Rim until well into the Holocene.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["timings", "trajectories", "colonization", "routes"], "article_id"=>503468, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Physics"], "users"=>["Marcus J. Hamilton", "Briggs Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_alternative_timings_and_trajectories_of_colonization_routes_into_the_Americas_/503468", "title"=>"Proposed alternative timings and trajectories of colonization routes into the Americas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:57:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832728"], "description"=>"<p>A) The earliest sites are located along the southern Siberia-northern Mongolia border, including Kara-Bom (1), the earliest site in the database, Kara-Tenesh (2), Kandabaevo (3), and Podzvonkaya (4). B) By ∼30k BP sites are found along the far-western border of Beringia following a north-south line, including Yana RHS (5), Ikhine 2 (6), and Ust-Mil 2 (7). C) There are no new sites in western Beringia over the next 10-thousand years, except Ezhantsy (8), which appears along the previously defined western Beringian border. However, sites appear to the northwest, such as Rychkovo (9), and further south, including Ogonki 5 (10) on Sakhalin Island. D) After the LGM sites rapidly appear along a temporal gradient across the greater Beringian region, including Berelekh (11), Siberdik (12), and Ushki (13), reaching eastern Beringia (Alaska) by ∼13.8k BP, Swan Point (14).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maps", "radiocarbon-dated", "archaeological", "sites", "northeastern", "eurasia", "10-thousand"], "article_id"=>503092, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Physics"], "users"=>["Marcus J. Hamilton", "Briggs Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_maps_of_the_expansion_of_radiocarbon_dated_archaeological_sites_across_northeastern_Eurasia_above_45_176_N_in_10_thousand_year_increments_/503092", "title"=>"Distribution maps of the expansion of radiocarbon-dated archaeological sites across northeastern Eurasia above 45°N in 10-thousand year increments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:51:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833262"], "description"=>"<p>The schematic illustrates the minimum radiocarbon gradient that the Eurasian record would have to show in order to support a pre-LGM colonization of the Americas. The velocity of expansion would have to be more than twice as fast as the empirical gradient in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone-0012472-g003\" target=\"_blank\">figure 3</a> (∼0.4 vs 0.16 km<sup>−yr</sup>), and sites throughout Beringia would have to be at least twice as old as the current archaeological record indicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["empirical", "three-stage", "hypothetical", "pre-lgm", "colonization"], "article_id"=>503631, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Physics"], "users"=>["Marcus J. Hamilton", "Briggs Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_the_empirical_wave_front_fit_solid_line_the_three_stage_expansion_model_dotted_lines_and_a_hypothetical_pre_LGM_colonization_model_solid_line_with_closed_circles_/503631", "title"=>"Schematic of the empirical wave front fit (solid line), the three-stage expansion model (dotted lines), and a hypothetical pre-LGM colonization model (solid line with closed circles).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:00:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832884"], "description"=>"<p>A) The solid line is a bisector OLS regression model (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> for details) through the earliest occupations per 500 km bin. Results demonstrate that over the ∼35,000 year expansion period the wave front traveled at an average velocity of about 0.16 km per year. The dotted line shows that the actual wave front seems to be three-stage with an initial pulse (∼46-32k BP), followed by a long pause spanning the LGM (∼32-17k BP), followed by a second pulse after the LGM (∼17-14k BP; see text for details).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "regression", "models", "calibrated", "dates"], "article_id"=>503255, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Physics"], "users"=>["Marcus J. Hamilton", "Briggs Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bivariate_plots_and_regression_models_of_calibrated_dates_and_distance_from_origin_for_each_site_/503255", "title"=>"Bivariate plots and regression models of calibrated dates and distance from origin for each site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:54:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/414898", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/414908"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Understanding the dynamics of the human range expansion across northeastern Eurasia during the late Pleistocene is central to establishing empirical temporal constraints on the colonization of the Americas <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Goebel1\">[1]</a>. Opinions vary widely on how and when the Americas were colonized, with advocates supporting either a pre-<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Madsen1\">[2]</a> or post-<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Goebel1\">[1]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Dixon1\">[3]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-ORourke1\">[4]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Bradley1\">[5]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Hamilton1\">[6]</a> last glacial maximum (LGM) colonization, via either a land bridge across Beringia <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Dixon1\">[3]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-ORourke1\">[4]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Bradley1\">[5]</a>, a sea-faring Pacific Rim coastal route <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Goebel1\">[1]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Dixon1\">[3]</a>, a trans-Arctic route <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-ORourke1\">[4]</a>, or a trans-Atlantic oceanic route <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Bradley1\">[5]</a>. Here we analyze a large sample of radiocarbon dates from the northeast Eurasian Upper Paleolithic to identify the origin of this expansion, and estimate the velocity of colonization wave as it moved across northern Eurasia and into the Americas.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We use diffusion models <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Hamilton1\">[6]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Fort1\">[7]</a> to quantify these dynamics. Our results show the expansion originated in the Altai region of southern Siberia ∼46kBP , and from there expanded across northern Eurasia at an average velocity of 0.16 km per year. However, the movement of the colonizing wave was not continuous but underwent three distinct phases: 1) an initial expansion from 47-32k calBP; 2) a hiatus from ∼32-16k calBP, and 3) a second expansion after the LGM ∼16k calBP. These results provide archaeological support for the recently proposed three-stage model of the colonization of the Americas <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Kitchen1\">[8]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472#pone.0012472-Mulligan1\">[9]</a>. Our results falsify the hypothesis of a pre-LGM terrestrial colonization of the Americas and we discuss the importance of these empirical results in the light of alternative models.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our results demonstrate that the radiocarbon record of Upper Paleolithic northeastern Eurasia supports a post-LGM terrestrial colonization of the Americas falsifying the proposed pre-LGM terrestrial colonization of the Americas. We show that this expansion was not a simple process, but proceeded in three phases, consistent with genetic data, largely in response to the variable climatic conditions of late Pleistocene northeast Eurasia. Further, the constraints imposed by the spatiotemporal gradient in the empirical radiocarbon record across this entire region suggests that North America cannot have been colonized much before the existing Clovis radiocarbon record suggests.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["archaeological", "three-stage", "humans", "northeastern", "eurasia", "americas"], "article_id"=>141912, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Physics"], "users"=>["Marcus J. Hamilton", "Briggs Buchanan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Archaeological_Support_for_the_Three_Stage_Expansion_of_Modern_Humans_across_Northeastern_Eurasia_and_into_the_Americas/141912", "title"=>"Archaeological Support for the Three-Stage Expansion of Modern Humans across Northeastern Eurasia and into the Americas", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:31:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832528"], "description"=>"<p>A) Uncalibrated dates and B) calibrated dates. Solid lines are exponential fits and dotted lines are 95% prediction intervals of the model. The error rates of a date are exponentially related to the age of that date. Thus an arbitrary error cut off rate of 1000, for example, would exclude all radiocarbon dates older than 40,000 years old. Further, while the oldest dates have the largest absolute errors, they vary at the same multiplicative rate as younger dates. In fact the older dates are less variable than the younger dates: all dates older than about 30,000 years BP (on either plot) fall within the 95% predictions of the exponential fit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "calibration", "errors"], "article_id"=>502898, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Physics"], "users"=>["Marcus J. Hamilton", "Briggs Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012472.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bivariate_plots_of_calibration_errors_as_a_function_of_occupation_dates_/502898", "title"=>"Bivariate plots of calibration errors as a function of occupation dates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:48:18"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
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Relative Metric

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