Stereoscopic Vision in the Absence of the Lateral Occipital Cortex
Publication Date
September 07, 2010
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jenny C. A. Read, Graeme P. Phillipson, Ignacio Serrano Pedraza, A. David Milner, et al
Volume
5
Issue
9
Pages
e12608
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012608
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20830303
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2935377
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20830303
Web of Science
000281631300030
Scopus
77958526506
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/stereoscopic-vision-absence-lateral-occipital-cortex
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831740"], "description"=>"<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone-0012608-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a> for experiment codes. For experiments done at both short and long durations, the duration is indicated by the suffix S or L. The suffix A indicates the anti-correlated version of the stimulus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["experiments", "performed"], "article_id"=>502112, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timeline_of_experiments_performed_by_DF_/502112", "title"=>"Timeline of experiments performed by DF.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:35:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832808"], "description"=>"<p>Each plane was defined by dots moving with the same speed and direction, either left or right. Each plane had a disparity of either 0 or ±11.2 arc min; in the two-plane stimulus with non-zero disparity, the planes had opposite disparity (i.e. the relative disparity between the two planes was either 0 or 22.4 arc min. A/B shows a schematic of an example stimulus on the screen; C/D shows a top-down view of the simulated planes, for each possible stimulus configuration of each type. The number of dots on each plane was constant, i.e. the total number of dots visible was twice as great in the two-plane stimulus (B). The task was to discriminate the one-plane stimuli (A/C) from the two-plane (B/D); this could be done either by detecting the number of directions of motion present (one vs two), or using the density cue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["defined", "moving"], "article_id"=>503176, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_3_3_One_A_C_vs_two_B_D_planes_defined_by_moving_dots_/503176", "title"=>"Experiment 3.3: One (A/C) vs two (B/D) planes, defined by moving dots.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:52:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/414134", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/414176", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/414233"], "description"=>"<div><p>Both dorsal and ventral cortical visual streams contain neurons sensitive to binocular disparities, but the two streams may underlie different aspects of stereoscopic vision. Here we investigate stereopsis in the neurological patient D.F., whose ventral stream, specifically lateral occipital cortex, has been damaged bilaterally, causing profound visual form agnosia. Despite her severe damage to cortical visual areas, we report that DF's stereo vision is strikingly unimpaired. She is better than many control observers at using binocular disparity to judge whether an isolated object appears near or far, and to resolve ambiguous structure-from-motion. DF is, however, poor at using relative disparity between features at different locations across the visual field. This may stem from a difficulty in identifying the surface boundaries where relative disparity is available. We suggest that the ventral processing stream may play a critical role in enabling healthy observers to extract fine depth information from relative disparities within one surface or between surfaces located in different parts of the visual field.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stereoscopic", "lateral", "occipital", "cortex"], "article_id"=>141790, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Stereoscopic_Vision_in_the_Absence_of_the_Lateral_Occipital_Cortex/141790", "title"=>"Stereoscopic Vision in the Absence of the Lateral Occipital Cortex", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:29:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831814"], "description"=>"<p><b>A:</b> Stimuli: (i) Central disparate disk is contiguous with a zero-disparity random-dot reference surface; (ii) central disk separated from reference surface by annulus of width 7°; (iii) no reference surface. In each case, the central target was 5.6° in diameter. <b>B:</b> Psychometric functions for patient DF and age-matched control M2, showing percentage “far” judgements as a function of target disparity, for long stimulus presentations. See Supporting Information <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone.0012608.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a> for full data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurological disorders", "neuroscience/sensory systems", "neuroscience/experimental psychology", "neuroscience/natural and synthetic vision"], "article_id"=>502183, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1_1_L_Front_back_discrimination_on_a_target_disk_/502183", "title"=>"Experiment 1.1<i>L</i>: Front/back discrimination on a target disk.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832232"], "description"=>"<p>AB: Gradients of the regression lines are shown for the different subjects/sessions, for long (A) and short (160ms, B) stimulus durations. DF's data are shown in black/gray. Filled symbols show results from 3 sessions before she was tested on the annulus task (Experiment 1.2, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone-0012608-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7</a>, tested in Sep 08); empty symbols show results from 2 sessions carried out after this. Control data are shown with colored symbols. The vertical dashed lines mark the separation between DF's gradients up till April 2008 and those of controls. The horizontal dashed line in <b>B</b> separates DF's results after testing with Experiment 1.2 from those obtained before.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fitted", "regression", "gradients", "subjects", "df"], "article_id"=>502600, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1_1_fitted_regression_gradients_from_all_control_subjects_and_from_DF_in_different_testing_sessions_/502600", "title"=>"Experiment 1.1, fitted regression gradients from all control subjects and from DF in different testing sessions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:43:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832110"], "description"=>"<p>A: “no reference” condition of Expt 1.1; C: Annulus stimulus with blank center. Both these stimuli require an absolute disparity judgment. B: “no gap” condition of Expt 1.1; D: Annulus stimulus when the center is filled with zero-disparity dots. Both these stimuli contain relative disparity information between abutting surfaces. EF: Psychometric functions for patient DF, for the stimuli in C (E) and D (F). The percentage of these judgments are plotted as a function of the disparity of the annulus. Errorbars show 95% confidence intervals based on simple binomial statistics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["annulus"], "article_id"=>502484, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Experiment_1_2_the_annulus_task_/502484", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 1.2, the annulus task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832308"], "description"=>"<p>Controls perform worse as gap size increases, whereas DF is unaffected. <b>A</b>: sketch of stimulus geometry. The top and bottom surfaces always had equal and opposite disparity relative to the fixation point; the task is to say which is closer. We varied the relative disparity between the top and bottom surfaces to obtain the relative disparity threshold for 4 different sizes of gap separating the two surfaces. The “surfaces” were depicted with black and white random dots on a uniform gray background; the gap region was the same uniform gray. <b>B</b>: Thresholds as a function of gap size for patient DF (black squares) and two controls (red dots, blue diamonds). See Supporting Information <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone.0012608.s003\" target=\"_blank\">File S3</a> for full data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurological disorders", "neuroscience/sensory systems", "neuroscience/experimental psychology", "neuroscience/natural and synthetic vision"], "article_id"=>502676, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1_3_top_bottom_closer_/502676", "title"=>"Experiment 1.3: top/bottom closer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831644"], "description"=>"<p>The experiments are grouped together according to the type of relative disparity investigated, and each stimulus is given a numerical identifier. For experiments which were performed at different stimulus durations, the suffix L indicates long duration (either 500ms or until the subject responded) and S indicates short duration (stimulus on-screen for 160ms or 200ms, too briefly for saccades or vergence movements). <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone-0012608-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> shows when DF was tested on each stimulus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurological disorders", "neuroscience/sensory systems", "neuroscience/experimental psychology", "neuroscience/natural and synthetic vision"], "article_id"=>502013, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reference_list_of_experiments_/502013", "title"=>"Reference list of experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:33:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832041"], "description"=>"<p>As <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone-0012608-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>, but for stimulus durations too short to allow eye movements. See Supporting Information <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone.0012608.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a> for full data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["160ms"], "article_id"=>502411, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Experiment_1_1S_160ms_stimulus_duration_/502411", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 1.1S, 160ms stimulus duration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:40:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832630"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>: sketch of the stimulus. Black and white squares move sinusoidally back and forth across a gray background, giving the impression of a glass cylinder covered in dots rotating about its own axis. The cylinder was 5.8° wide×9.2° high. The cylinder completed one rotation every 5s, corresponding to an average dot velocity of 2.6°/s. <b>B</b>: Disparity thresholds for DF and 5 controls, i.e. the relative disparity between the front and back surfaces of the cylinder at which performance is 84% correct. <b>C</b>: Disparity thresholds on the rotating cylinder task expressed as a fraction of smallest threshold obtained on any front/back discrimination task. See Supporting Information <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone.0012608.s003\" target=\"_blank\">File S3</a> for full data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rotating"], "article_id"=>503004, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_3_1_Rotating_cylinder_/503004", "title"=>"Experiment 3.1: Rotating cylinder.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:50:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832404"], "description"=>"<p>A random-dot pattern is magnified horizontally in one eye so as to depict a surface slanted about a vertical axis. <b>A</b>: Experiment 2.1, whole display is slanted. <b>B</b>: Experiment 2.2, only central strip is slanted. <b>C</b>: Psychometric functions and fitted thresholds for patient DF (test session April 2009) and age-matched control M2, for stimulus duration 160ms. Note different axis range for M2, strip condition. See Supporting Information <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone.0012608.s003\" target=\"_blank\">File S3</a> for full data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disparity-defined"], "article_id"=>502777, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_2_Disparity_defined_slant_/502777", "title"=>"Experiment 2: Disparity-defined slant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831557"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>: Relative disparity between two points. Absolute disparity of an object = difference in its angular distance from the fovea in the two eyes. Here the eyes are looking at point <i>a</i>, so <i>a</i> has zero absolute disparity but <i>b</i> has a non-zero value. The relative disparity of the two points is equal to the difference in their absolute disparities (equivalent to difference in angles subtended at each point, as shown). <b>B</b>: Relative disparity between different points on a surface. <b>C</b>: Relative disparity between surfaces, one of which occludes the other. <b>D</b>: Relative disparity between transparently-visible surfaces, as can occur where a non-opaque surface or structure, such as a picket-fence or tree, partially occludes a more distance surface.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["configurations"], "article_id"=>501925, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_stimulus_configurations_that_give_rise_to_relative_disparity_/501925", "title"=>"Different stimulus configurations that give rise to relative disparity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:32:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832693"], "description"=>"<p>The stimulus was a patch of light and dark dots 4.5° wide×2.2° high on a gray background. In (A), the dots were static and all in the same depth plane, with absolute disparity indicated on the horizontal axis. The red line shows a cumulative Gaussian fitted to the black dots (white dots represent data not used for fitting); the number in the upper right is the fitted threshold, i.e. the standard deviation of the fitted Gaussian. (B) as (A), except the dots were moving either left or right, with constant speed 2.7°/s. In (A) and (B), the task was to report whether the plane appeared in front of or behind the screen. (C) as (B), except there was a second plane of dots with the opposite direction of motion, and opposite disparity. The two planes of dots moved transparently past one another; the total dot density was thus twice as great in (C) as in (A) and (B). The task in (C) was to report the direction of motion of the front plane. For comparison with A and B, the horizontal axis in C, and the threshold, shows the absolute disparity of the leftward-moving plane. The relative disparity between the two planes was twice this.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["static", "moving"], "article_id"=>503068, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_3_2_front_back_discrimination_with_static_vs_moving_dots_/503068", "title"=>"Experiment 3.2: front/back discrimination with static vs moving dots.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:51:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832497"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>: Magnification thresholds for DF and 5 controls on Experiment 2, in the full-screen condition (red, 2.1, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone-0012608-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7A</a>) and in the strip condition (blue, 2.2, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone-0012608-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7B</a>), stimulus duration 160ms. Subject JR's threshold on the full-screen task was 5%. <b>B</b>: Ratio of magnification threshold obtained in the full-screen task to threshold obtained in the strip task. In both cases, error-bars show 95% confidence intervals. See Supporting Information <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone.0012608.s003\" target=\"_blank\">File S3</a> for full data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disparity-defined"], "article_id"=>502870, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Experiment_2_Disparity_defined_slant_/502870", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 2: Disparity-defined slant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:47:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831964"], "description"=>"<p><b>A:</b> Threshold as function of gap size for DF (black squares, gray diamonds) and M2 (red circles), together with regression lines for log threshold as a linear function of gap size. <b>B:</b> Regression gradients (log<sub>10</sub> arcmin/deg) for DF (black squares) and 7 controls (colored symbols). For the regressions, the “no reference” condition was taken to be equal to a gap of 12.5°. This is the smallest annulus width that completely removes the reference surface from view, even in the diagonal corner of the screen. In both panels, the error-bars are 95% confidence intervals generated by bootstrap resampling. The vertical dashed line in panel B demonstrates that the 95% confidence interval for DF's gradient does not overlap the 95% confidence interval of any of the 7 controls. See Supporting Information <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608#pone.0012608.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a> for full data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurological disorders", "neuroscience/sensory systems", "neuroscience/experimental psychology", "neuroscience/natural and synthetic vision"], "article_id"=>502332, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jenny C. A. Read", "Graeme P. Phillipson", "Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza", "A. David Milner", "Andrew J. Parker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012608.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Experiment_1_1_L_long_stimulus_duration_/502332", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 1.1<i>L</i>, long stimulus duration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-07 00:38:52"}

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Relative Metric

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