Evidence of Transfer by Conjugation of Type IV Secretion System Genes between Bartonella Species and Rhizobium radiobacter in Amoeba
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/413577/Table_S1.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/413597/Table_S2.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/413618/Table_S3.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/413628/Table_S4.doc"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p><em>Bartonella</em> species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the <em>B. rattaustraliani</em> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>) circular plasmid (pNH4) that encodes the <em>tra</em> cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) and we eventually provide evidence that <em>Bartonella</em> species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba.</p><h3>Principal Findings</h3><p>The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to <em>Rhizobiales</em>, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae) and plants (Rhizobiales). We show that <em>B. rattaustraliani</em> and <em>Rhizobium radiobacter</em> both survived within the amoeba <em>Acanthamoeba polyphaga</em> and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that <em>tra</em> genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between <em>Bartonella</em> species and plant pathogens.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conjugation", "iv", "secretion", "genes", "amoeba"], "article_id"=>141691, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/Evidence_of_Transfer_by_Conjugation_of_Type_IV_Secretion_System_Genes_between_Bartonella_Species_and_Rhizobium_radiobacter_in_Amoeba/141691", "title"=>"Evidence of Transfer by Conjugation of Type IV Secretion System Genes between <em>Bartonella</em> Species and <em>Rhizobium radiobacter</em> in Amoeba", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:28:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/830226/Figure_1.tif"], "description"=>"<p>(A) PFGE of <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>), <i>B. henselae</i> Houston-1 compared with marker PFG. (B) digested plasmid pNH4. Ch; chromosome, D; digestion, P; pNH4.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "molecular biology", "microbiology/microbial evolution and genomics"], "article_id"=>500594, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Gel_electrophoresis_/500594", "title"=>"Gel electrophoresis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:09:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/830327/Figure_2.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Gene organisation of pNH4, pBT and pBGR3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["organisation", "pbt"], "article_id"=>500695, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_organisation_of_pNH4_pBT_and_pBGR3_/500695", "title"=>"Gene organisation of pNH4, pBT and pBGR3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:11:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/830413/Figure_3.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Gel electrophoresis of plasmid extraction from 20 strains of <i>Bartonella</i> species isolated from Australia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electrophoresis", "plasmid", "extraction", "20", "strains"], "article_id"=>500774, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Gel_electrophoresis_of_plasmid_extraction_from_20_strains_of_Bartonella_species_isolated_from_Australia_/500774", "title"=>"Gel electrophoresis of plasmid extraction from 20 strains of <i>Bartonella</i> species isolated from Australia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:12:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/830539/Figure_4.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Concatenated tree of <i>Bartonella</i> spp. based on <i>rpoB</i> and <i>gltA</i> proteins and loci encoding the T4SSs <i>virB</i>, VirB homolog (<i>vbh</i>), <i>trw</i>, and <i>tra</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proteins", "loci", "encoding", "t4sss", "virb", "homolog"], "article_id"=>500896, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Concatenated_tree_of_Bartonella_spp_based_on_rpoB_and_gltA_proteins_and_loci_encoding_the_T4SSs_virB_VirB_homolog_vbh_trw_and_tra_/500896", "title"=>"Concatenated tree of <i>Bartonella</i> spp. based on <i>rpoB</i> and <i>gltA</i> proteins and loci encoding the T4SSs <i>virB</i>, VirB homolog (<i>vbh</i>), <i>trw</i>, and <i>tra</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:14:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/830680/Figure_5.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Small hair-like pili of <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>) grown on blood agar plate (A) and putative sex pili of conjugation between <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>) and <i>B. henselae</i> Ery<sup>R</sup> viewed under electron microscopy (B, C, and D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pili", "conjugation", "eryr", "viewed", "electron"], "article_id"=>501042, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Putative_sex_pili_of_conjugation_between_B_rattaustraliani_AUST_NH4_T_and_B_henselae_EryR_viewed_under_electron_microscopy_/501042", "title"=>"Putative sex pili of conjugation between <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>) and <i>B. henselae</i> EryR viewed under electron microscopy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:17:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/830789/Figure_6.tif"], "description"=>"<p>For each subculture, 5 colonies were taken carefully to perform quantitative PCR analysis to normalize the bacterial biomass for each data point.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pcr", "detection", "plasmid", "pnh4"], "article_id"=>501155, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitative_PCR_detection_of_plasmid_pNH4_after_genetic_exchange_between_B_rattaustraliani_AUST_NH4_T_and_B_henselae_Ery_R_or_R_radiobacter_/501155", "title"=>"Quantitative PCR detection of plasmid pNH4 after genetic exchange between <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>) and <i>B. henselae</i> Ery<sup>R</sup> or <i>R. radiobacter</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:19:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/830857/Figure_7.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Phylogenetic tree of conjugal transfer protein obtained in pNH4 based on the alignment of amino acid sequences of <i>traG/VirD4</i> is closely related to other <i>Bartonella</i> species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conjugal", "pnh4", "alignment", "amino", "sequences"], "article_id"=>501217, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_tree_of_conjugal_transfer_protein_obtained_in_pNH4_based_on_the_alignment_of_amino_acid_sequences_of_traG_VirD4_is_closely_related_to_other_Bartonella_species_/501217", "title"=>"Phylogenetic tree of conjugal transfer protein obtained in pNH4 based on the alignment of amino acid sequences of <i>traG/VirD4</i> is closely related to other <i>Bartonella</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/830915/Figure_8.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Phylogenetic trees of conjugal transfer protein obtained in pNH4 based on the alignment of amino acid sequences of <i>traA</i> (A), <i>traC</i> (B), and <i>traD</i> (C) are closely related to plant pathogens of Rhizobiales.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trees", "conjugal", "pnh4", "pathogens"], "article_id"=>501284, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_trees_of_conjugal_transfer_protein_obtained_in_pNH4_and_in_plant_pathogens_of_Rhizobiales_/501284", "title"=>"Phylogenetic trees of conjugal transfer protein obtained in pNH4 and in plant pathogens of Rhizobiales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:21:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/831118/Figure_9.tif"], "description"=>"<p>(A) IFA of <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>), <i>B. henselae</i> Ery<sup>R</sup> conjugants and <i>B. henselae</i> Ery<sup>R</sup> alone, ×100 magnification; (B) Recomposition of digital sections of an amoeba showing intra-amoebal position of <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>) after 6 days of coculture. Sections were taken in 0.5-µm increments from top to bottom, and used for the reconstruction of the entire amoeba, ×63 magnification.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viewed", "confocal"], "article_id"=>501487, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_of_Bartonellae_bacteria_in_A_polyphaga_and_viewed_by_confocal_microscopy_/501487", "title"=>"Growth of <i>Bartonellae</i> bacteria in <i>A. polyphaga</i> and viewed by confocal microscopy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:24:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/831294/Figure_10.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Molecular detection of plasmid pNH4 from subcultures on BCYE agar plates of <i>R. radiobacter</i> conjugants obtained after conjugation with <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>) within <i>A. polyphaga</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detection", "plasmid", "pnh4", "subcultures", "bcye", "agar", "plates", "conjugants", "conjugation"], "article_id"=>501649, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Molecular_detection_of_plasmid_pNH4_from_subcultures_on_BCYE_agar_plates_of_R_radiobacter_conjugants_obtained_after_conjugation_with_B_rattaustraliani_AUST_NH4_T_within_A_polyphaga_/501649", "title"=>"Molecular detection of plasmid pNH4 from subcultures on BCYE agar plates of <i>R. radiobacter</i> conjugants obtained after conjugation with <i>B. rattaustraliani</i> (AUST/NH4<sup>T</sup>) within <i>A. polyphaga</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:27:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/831502/Figure_11.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Putative scenario of the creation of pathogenic <i>Bartonella</i> species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathogenic"], "article_id"=>501873, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Putative_scenario_of_the_creation_of_pathogenic_Bartonella_species_/501873", "title"=>"Putative scenario of the creation of pathogenic <i>Bartonella</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:31:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/831647/Table_2.xls"], "description"=>"a<p>statistical difference between number of bacteria inside and outside amoeba for the corresponding Bartonellae and <i>B. henselae</i> Ery<sup>R</sup> alone.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bartonellae", "amoeba", "confocal", "microscopy", "immunofluorescence", "staining", "magnification", "counted", "days"], "article_id"=>502000, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_Bartonellae_inside_and_outside_amoeba_as_determined_using_confocal_microscopy_and_immunofluorescence_staining_at_215_63_magnification_and_counted_after_6_days_of_cocultivation_/502000", "title"=>"Number of Bartonellae inside and outside amoeba as determined using confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence staining at ×63 magnification and counted after 6 days of cocultivation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:33:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/831690/Table_1.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Genes related to toxin-antitoxin system in pNH4.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["toxin-antitoxin"], "article_id"=>502057, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Watcharee Saisongkorh", "Catherine Robert", "Bernard La Scola", "Didier Raoult", "Jean-Marc Rolain"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012666.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_related_to_toxin_antitoxin_system_in_pNH4_/502057", "title"=>"Genes related to toxin-antitoxin system in pNH4.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-13 00:34:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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