Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Do Recognize Themselves in the Mirror: Implications for the Evolution of Self-Recognition
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{"title"=>"Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) do recognize themselves in the mirror: Implications for the evolution of self-recognition", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Abigail Z.", "last_name"=>"Rajala", "scopus_author_id"=>"36546564200"}, {"first_name"=>"Katharine R.", "last_name"=>"Reininger", "scopus_author_id"=>"37038256800"}, {"first_name"=>"Kimberly M.", "last_name"=>"Lancaster", "scopus_author_id"=>"37037804700"}, {"first_name"=>"Luis C.", "last_name"=>"Populin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602851647"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77958580657", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0012865", "sgr"=>"77958580657", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"20927365", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"359839251"}, "id"=>"97c85674-5f9e-39f3-9684-b242a0552e90", "abstract"=>"Self-recognition in front of a mirror is used as an indicator of self-awareness. Along with humans, some chimpanzees and orangutans have been shown to be self-aware using the mark test. Monkeys are conspicuously absent from this list because they fail the mark test and show persistent signs of social responses to mirrors despite prolonged exposure, which has been interpreted as evidence of a cognitive divide between hominoids and other species. In stark contrast with those reports, the rhesus monkeys in this study, who had been prepared for electrophysiological recordings with a head implant, showed consistent self-directed behaviors in front of the mirror and showed social responses that subsided quickly during the first experimental session. The self-directed behaviors, which were performed in front of the mirror and did not take place in its absence, included extensive observation of the implant and genital areas that cannot be observed directly without a mirror. We hypothesize that the head implant, a most salient mark, prompted the monkeys to overcome gaze aversion inhibition or lack of interest in order to look and examine themselves in front of the mirror. The results of this study demonstrate that rhesus monkeys do recognize themselves in the mirror and, therefore, have some form of self-awareness. Accordingly, instead of a cognitive divide, they support the notion of an evolutionary continuity of mental functions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-recognize-themselves-mirror-implications-evolution-selfrecognition", "reader_count"=>157, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>6, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>6, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>69, "Philosophy"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>10, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>38, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>38}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>10}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>69}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>5}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>8, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Switzerland"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "China"=>2, "Ireland"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Poland"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>5}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827244"], "description"=>"<p>The red arrows point to the manipulation of the genitals (B,C). (D) Acrobatics such as this were commonly observed during inspection of genital area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["monkeys", "examining", "genital"], "article_id"=>497612, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Abigail Z. Rajala", "Katharine R. Reininger", "Kimberly M. Lancaster", "Luis C. Populin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_monkeys_examining_their_genital_area_in_front_of_the_mirrors_/497612", "title"=>"Example of monkeys examining their genital area in front of the mirrors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-29 02:06:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827152"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Number of looks in the large mirror and large black-covered mirror during the first session. The one-hour session was broken up into 10-minute bins. (B) Number of looks into the large mirror and number of social behaviors directed at the large mirror per minute. The number of social behaviors in the last four sessions declined significantly (<i>p</i><0.05) relative to the first. The standard bars represent standard errors and the asterisks indicate significance (<i>t</i>-test, <i>p</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirror-directed", "behaviors"], "article_id"=>497517, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Abigail Z. Rajala", "Katharine R. Reininger", "Kimberly M. Lancaster", "Luis C. Populin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_mirror_directed_behaviors_during_the_first_session_and_across_five_sessions_/497517", "title"=>"Quantification of mirror-directed behaviors during the first session and across five sessions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-29 02:05:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826896"], "description"=>"<p>(A,B) images from video recordings taken over the course of approximately eight months following initial observations. In each photograph the hand used for grooming is highlighted with a red arrow. In (A) the monkey leaned to his left while sitting on the perch to be able to look at himself in the mirror. In (B) The same monkey held the mirror at the appropriate angle for viewing himself with the right hand while grooming the area around the implant with the left. (C,D) Self-directed behaviors with the large mirror from two other monkeys. View of the implants have been masked for discretion (A–C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["self-directed", "behaviors"], "article_id"=>497261, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Abigail Z. Rajala", "Katharine R. Reininger", "Kimberly M. Lancaster", "Luis C. Populin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_monkey_self_directed_behaviors_in_front_of_the_mirror_/497261", "title"=>"Examples of monkey self-directed behaviors in front of the mirror.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-29 02:01:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/412063", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/412072", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/412076", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/412082", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/412091", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/412096"], "description"=>"<div><p>Self-recognition in front of a mirror is used as an indicator of self-awareness. Along with humans, some chimpanzees and orangutans have been shown to be self-aware using the mark test. Monkeys are conspicuously absent from this list because they fail the mark test and show persistent signs of social responses to mirrors despite prolonged exposure, which has been interpreted as evidence of a cognitive divide between hominoids and other species. In stark contrast with those reports, the rhesus monkeys in this study, who had been prepared for electrophysiological recordings with a head implant, showed consistent self-directed behaviors in front of the mirror and showed social responses that subsided quickly during the first experimental session. The self-directed behaviors, which were performed in front of the mirror and did not take place in its absence, included extensive observation of the implant and genital areas that cannot be observed directly without a mirror. We hypothesize that the head implant, a most salient mark, prompted the monkeys to overcome gaze aversion inhibition or lack of interest in order to look and examine themselves in front of the mirror. The results of this study demonstrate that rhesus monkeys do recognize themselves in the mirror and, therefore, have some form of self-awareness. Accordingly, instead of a cognitive divide, they support the notion of an evolutionary continuity of mental functions.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhesus", "monkeys", "implications", "self-recognition"], "article_id"=>141396, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Abigail Z. Rajala", "Katharine R. Reininger", "Kimberly M. Lancaster", "Luis C. Populin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Rhesus_Monkeys_Macaca_mulatta_Do_Recognize_Themselves_in_the_Mirror_Implications_for_the_Evolution_of_Self_Recognition/141396", "title"=>"Rhesus Monkeys (<em>Macaca mulatta</em>) Do Recognize Themselves in the Mirror: Implications for the Evolution of Self-Recognition", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-09-29 00:23:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827406"], "description"=>"<p>Behavioral categories and descriptions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["categories"], "article_id"=>497777, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Abigail Z. Rajala", "Katharine R. Reininger", "Kimberly M. Lancaster", "Luis C. Populin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavioral_categories_and_descriptions_/497777", "title"=>"Behavioral categories and descriptions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-29 02:09:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827005"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Average number of looks in the mirror per minute recorded in the large and small mirror sessions and their corresponding controls covered with black, non-reflective plastic. (B) Average look duration for the mirrors and black controls. (C) Rate of touching unseen areas, the area around the implant on the head and genitals as described in B of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865#pone-0012865-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>, in the small and large mirror sessions normalized to the control. Control represents the no-mirror condition. Data from all five monkeys studied are included in this figure. All behaviors involved the monkeys moving or moving the mirror with their hands or feet to obtain the appropriate angle to look at themselves.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirror-directed"], "article_id"=>497369, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Abigail Z. Rajala", "Katharine R. Reininger", "Kimberly M. Lancaster", "Luis C. Populin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012865.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_mirror_directed_behaviors_/497369", "title"=>"Quantification of mirror-directed behaviors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-29 02:02:49"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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