Size, Rarity and Charisma: Valuing African Wildlife Trophies
Publication Date
September 22, 2010
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Paul J. Johnson, Ruth Kansky, Andrew J. Loveridge & David W. Macdonald
Volume
5
Issue
9
Pages
e12866
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012866
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012866
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20877564
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943918
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20877564
Web of Science
000282053100021
Scopus
77958455862
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/size-rarity-charisma-valuing-african-wildlife-trophies
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Size, rarity and charisma: Valuing African wildlife trophies", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Paul J.", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55688010600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ruth", "last_name"=>"Kansky", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193597898"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew J.", "last_name"=>"Loveridge", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603147284"}, {"first_name"=>"David W.", "last_name"=>"Macdonald", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401463172"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"359826779", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0012866", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77958455862", "pmid"=>"20877564", "sgr"=>"77958455862"}, "id"=>"b66d53f1-4dac-343f-9110-17c0ad4035ed", "abstract"=>"We explore variation in the prices paid by recreational hunters of trophy animals in Africa and its possible causes, including perceived rarity. Previous work has raised the possibility that extinction can result if demand rises fast enough as a species becomes rarer. We attempt to disentangle this from other inter-correlated influences affecting price. Species with larger body sizes and larger trophies were more valuable. Value increased less steeply as a function of size for bovids than for felids and the effect was consistent across countries. Power laws, ubiquitous in physical and social systems, described the trends. The exponent was approximately 0.4 for bovids, compared with approximately 1.0 for felids. Rarity (as indexed by IUCN score) influenced the value of bovid trophies - price was higher for species in categories denoting higher global threat. There was substantial variation in price among and within families not explained by either size or rarity. This may be attributable to a 'charisma' effect, which seems likely to be a general attribute of human perceptions of wildlife. Species where prices were higher than predicted by size or rarity are ranked high in published accounts of desirability by hunters. We conclude that the valuation of these species is explicable to a large extent by body size and perceived rarity, and that differences in valuation between taxonomic groups are related to less easily quantified 'charisma' effects. These findings are relevant for conservationists considering the threat status of species exploited in open access markets, and where license quotas are adjusted in response to changes in perceived rarity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/size-rarity-charisma-valuing-african-wildlife-trophies", "reader_count"=>83, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>29, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>29}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828956"], "description"=>"<p>(Dashed line denotes category means among taxa: V mean = $3112.2 (SE = 685.7), LR/NT $1640.9 (256.1), LR/CD $1481.7 (129.6), LR/LC $610.3 (78.4)).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sci", "iucn", "bovid", "taxa"], "article_id"=>499320, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul J. Johnson", "Ruth Kansky", "Andrew J. Loveridge", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012866.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_influence_of_a_body_mass_BM_b_SCI_index_and_c_IUCN_category_on_mean_price_MP_for_bovid_taxa_within_countries_/499320", "title"=>"The influence of a) body mass BM, b) SCI index and c) IUCN category on mean price (MP) for bovid taxa within countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 23:22:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/829050"], "description"=>"<p>Other predictors: WT = species body mass, SCI = Safari Club International trophy score. IUCN = International Union for the Conservation of Nature classification for species. ‘ln’ = natural log. Evidence ratio is the likelihood of a model being the ‘best’ model compared with the top ranked model. All main effects models with transformed and untransformed predictors used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "predicting", "bovid", "trophy", "26", "included", "id", "blocking"], "article_id"=>499412, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul J. Johnson", "Ruth Kansky", "Andrew J. Loveridge", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012866.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evaluation_of_models_for_predicting_bovid_trophy_price_All_26_models_included_country_ID_as_blocking_factor_/499412", "title"=>"Evaluation of models for predicting bovid trophy price. All 26 models included country ID as blocking factor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 23:23:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/829089"], "description"=>"<p>Partial r-squared values (%). All models with country ID entered first. Parameter estimates from full model (ranked first in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012866#pone-0012866-t001\" target=\"_blank\">table 1</a>, and from models with country plus single predictor.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bovid", "trophy"], "article_id"=>499454, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul J. Johnson", "Ruth Kansky", "Andrew J. Loveridge", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012866.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predictors_of_bovid_trophy_value_/499454", "title"=>"Predictors of bovid trophy value.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 23:23:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828796"], "description"=>"<p>a) Mean price (MP) as a function of mean body mass (MBM). MP = 42.5*MBM <sup>0.62</sup>, exponent CI 0.462 to 0.778, R<sup>2</sup> = 80.5% b) MP and IUCN category. MP = e <sup>(11.1–1.31.IUCN)</sup>, exponent CI −1.51 to −1.11) R<sup>2</sup> = 73.7%. (V = vulnerable, LR/NT = Least risk, near threatened, LR/CD = Least risk, conservation dependent, LR/LC = Least risk, least concern). Family locations plotted as mean among ordinal categories.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trophy"], "article_id"=>499164, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul J. Johnson", "Ruth Kansky", "Andrew J. Loveridge", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012866.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Family_level_effects_on_trophy_prices_/499164", "title"=>"Family level effects on trophy prices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 23:22:08"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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