Increased Dependence of Humans on Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity
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{"title"=>"Increased dependence of humans on ecosystem services and biodiversity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zhongwei", "last_name"=>"Guo", "scopus_author_id"=>"35248217300"}, {"first_name"=>"Lin", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"15040673900"}, {"first_name"=>"Yiming", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"55719160400"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78049286824", "sgr"=>"78049286824", "pui"=>"359856567", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"20957042", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013113"}, "id"=>"62b97910-c4ee-351f-8139-fbdc3fbcab3f", "abstract"=>"Humans have altered ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than ever, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for resources along with economic development. These demands have been considered important drivers of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. Are humans becoming less dependent on ecosystem services and biodiversity following economic development? Here, we used roundwood production, hydroelectricity generation and tourism investment in 92 biodiversity hotspot and 60 non-hotspot countries as cases to seek the answer. In 1980-2005, annual growth rates of roundwood production, hydroelectricity generation and tourism investment were higher in hotspot countries (5.2, 9.1 and 7.5%) than in non-hotspot countries (3.4, 5.9 and 5.6%), when GDP grew more rapidly in hotspot countries than non-hotspot countries. Annual growth rates of per capita hydropower and per capita tourism investment were higher in hotspot countries (5.3% and 6.1%) than in non-hotspot countries (3.5% and 4.3%); however, the annual growth rate of per capita roundwood production in hotspot countries (1%) was lower than in non-hotspot countries (1.4%). The dependence of humans on cultural services has increased more rapidly than on regulating services, while the dependence on provisioning services has reduced. This pattern is projected to continue during 2005-2020. Our preliminary results show that economic growth has actually made humans more dependent upon ecosystem services and biodiversity. As a consequence, the policies and implementations of both economic development and ecosystems/biodiversity conservation should be formulated and carried out in the context of the increased dependence of humans on ecosystem services along with economic development.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/increased-dependence-humans-ecosystem-services-biodiversity", "reader_count"=>283, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>79, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. 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Student"=>59, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>47, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>23, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>96, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>114, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>16, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>16}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>23}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>114}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>96}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>7, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Kenya"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>3, "India"=>2, "Canada"=>2, "Sweden"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>5, "Denmark"=>1, "South Africa"=>3, "Mexico"=>3, "Uganda"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Slovenia"=>1, "Australia"=>3, "France"=>2, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>6}, "group_count"=>8}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826601"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: <i>PCRG</i>, annual rate of growth in per capita roundwood production; <i>PCHG</i>, annual rate of growth in per capita hydroelectricity generation; <i>PCTG</i>, annual rate of growth in per capita tourism investmen<b>t</b>. The frequency of hotspot and non-hotspot countries occurring in categories <i>PCRG</i>>0 and <i>PCRG</i>≤0 at <i>P</i> = 0.0206 in 1980–2005. The frequency of hotspot and non-hotspot countries occurring in categories <i>PCHG</i>>0 and <i>PCHG</i>≤0 differed at <i>P</i> = 0.0092 for 1980–2005 and <i>P</i> = 0.0006 for 2005–2020. The frequency of hotspot and non-hotspot countries occurring in categories <i>PCTG</i>>0 and <i>PCTG</i>≤0 differed at <i>P</i> = 0.0384 for 1980–2005 and <i>P</i> = 0.0293 for 2005–2020.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "capita", "roundwood", "hydroelectricity"], "article_id"=>496967, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhongwei Guo", "Lin Zhang", "Yiming Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013113.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>53, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparisons_of_growth_rates_of_per_capita_roundwood_production_per_capita_hydroelectricity_generation_and_per_capita_tourism_investment_/496967", "title"=>"Comparisons of growth rates of per capita roundwood production, per capita hydroelectricity generation and per capita tourism investment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 01:56:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826565"], "description"=>"<p>Status of six biodiversity hotspot countries in 1980–2005.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biodiversity", "hotspot", "countries"], "article_id"=>496934, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhongwei Guo", "Lin Zhang", "Yiming Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013113.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Status_of_six_biodiversity_hotspot_countries_in_1980_8211_2005_/496934", "title"=>"Status of six biodiversity hotspot countries in 1980–2005.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 01:55:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826311"], "description"=>"<p>Dynamics of roundwood production, hydropower, tourism investment and GDP in the world between 1980 and 2005.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["roundwood", "gdp", "1980"], "article_id"=>496679, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhongwei Guo", "Lin Zhang", "Yiming Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013113.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamics_of_roundwood_production_hydropower_tourism_investment_and_GDP_in_the_world_between_1980_and_2005_/496679", "title"=>"Dynamics of roundwood production, hydropower, tourism investment and GDP in the world between 1980 and 2005.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 01:51:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411761", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411776"], "description"=>"<div><p>Humans have altered ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than ever, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for resources along with economic development. These demands have been considered important drivers of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. Are humans becoming less dependent on ecosystem services and biodiversity following economic development? Here, we used roundwood production, hydroelectricity generation and tourism investment in 92 biodiversity hotspot and 60 non-hotspot countries as cases to seek the answer. In 1980–2005, annual growth rates of roundwood production, hydroelectricity generation and tourism investment were higher in hotspot countries (5.2, 9.1 and 7.5%) than in non-hotspot countries (3.4, 5.9 and 5.6%), when GDP grew more rapidly in hotspot countries than non-hotspot countries. Annual growth rates of per capita hydropower and per capita tourism investment were higher in hotspot countries (5.3% and 6.1%) than in non-hotspot countries (3.5% and 4.3%); however, the annual growth rate of per capita roundwood production in hotspot countries (1%) was lower than in non-hotspot countries (1.4%). The dependence of humans on cultural services has increased more rapidly than on regulating services, while the dependence on provisioning services has reduced. This pattern is projected to continue during 2005–2020. Our preliminary results show that economic growth has actually made humans more dependent upon ecosystem services and biodiversity. As a consequence, the policies and implementations of both economic development and ecosystems/biodiversity conservation should be formulated and carried out in the context of the increased dependence of humans on ecosystem services along with economic development.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dependence", "humans", "services", "biodiversity"], "article_id"=>141329, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhongwei Guo", "Lin Zhang", "Yiming Li"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013113.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013113.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Increased_Dependence_of_Humans_on_Ecosystem_Services_and_Biodiversity/141329", "title"=>"Increased Dependence of Humans on Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 00:22:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826634"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: <i>RWP</i>, annual rate of growth in roundwood production; <i>HEG</i>, annual rate of growth in hydroelectricity generation; <i>TIM</i>, annual rate of growth in tourism investment. The frequency of hotspot and non-hotspot countries occurring in categories <i>HEG</i>(+)><i>RWP</i>(+) and <i>HEG</i>(+)<<i>RWP</i>(+) differed at <i>P</i> = 0.0384 for 1980–2005 and <i>P</i> = 0.0293 for 2005–2020. The frequency of hotspot and non-hotspot countries occurring in categories <i>TIM</i>(+)><i>RWP</i> (+) and <i>TIM</i>(+)<<i>RWP</i> (+) differed at <i>P</i> = 0.0229 for 1980–2005 and <i>P</i> = 0.0284 for 2005–2020.</p>§<p>Both <i>HEG</i> and <i>RWP</i> are positive and the former is greater than the latter.</p>¦<p>Both <i>HEG</i> and <i>RWP</i> are positive and the former is smaller than the latter.</p><p>*Both <i>TIM</i> and <i>RWP</i> are positive and the former is greater than the latter.</p>!!<p>Both <i>TIM</i> and <i>RWP</i> are positive and the former is smaller than the latter.</p>‡<p>Both <i>TIM</i> and <i>HEG</i> are positive and the former is greater than the latter.</p>†<p>Both <i>TIM</i> and <i>HEG</i> are positive and the former is smaller than the latter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "roundwood", "hydroelectricity"], "article_id"=>497006, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhongwei Guo", "Lin Zhang", "Yiming Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013113.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparisons_of_growth_rates_of_roundwood_production_hydroelectricity_generation_and_tourism_investment_/497006", "title"=>"Comparisons of growth rates of roundwood production, hydroelectricity generation and tourism investment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 01:56:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826378"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>. Annual growth rates of roundwood production, hydropower, tourism investment and GDP in HC and NHC during 1980–2005. <b>b</b>. Projected annual growth rates of roundwood production, hydropower, tourism investment and GDP in HC and NHC during 2005–2020.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["roundwood", "gdp", "92", "hotspot", "60", "non-hotspot", "countries"], "article_id"=>496741, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhongwei Guo", "Lin Zhang", "Yiming Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013113.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamics_of_roundwood_production_hydropower_tourism_investment_and_GDP_in_92_hotspot_HC_and_60_non_hotspot_countries_NHC_/496741", "title"=>"Dynamics of roundwood production, hydropower, tourism investment and GDP in 92 hotspot (HC) and 60 non-hotspot countries (NHC).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 01:52:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826468"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>. Annual growth rates of roundwood production, hydropower, tourism investment and GDP in HC-DC and HC-IC during 1980–2005. <b>b</b>. Projected annual growth rates of roundwood production, hydropower, tourism investment and GDP in HC-DC and HC-IC during 2005–2020.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["roundwood", "gdp", "81", "hotspot", "11", "industrialized", "countries"], "article_id"=>496833, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhongwei Guo", "Lin Zhang", "Yiming Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013113.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamics_of_roundwood_production_hydropower_tourism_investment_and_GDP_in_81_developing_hotspot_HC_DC_and_11_industrialized_hotspot_countries_HC_IC_/496833", "title"=>"Dynamics of roundwood production, hydropower, tourism investment and GDP in 81 developing hotspot (HC-DC) and 11 industrialized hotspot countries (HC-IC).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 01:53:53"}

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Relative Metric

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