Cartilaginous Epiphyses in Extant Archosaurs and Their Implications for Reconstructing Limb Function in Dinosaurs
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{"title"=>"Cartilaginous epiphyses in extant archosaurs and their implications for reconstructing limb function in dinosaurs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Casey M.", "last_name"=>"Holliday", "scopus_author_id"=>"14829148700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryan C.", "last_name"=>"Ridgely", "scopus_author_id"=>"14629484300"}, {"first_name"=>"Jayc C.", "last_name"=>"Sedlmayr", "scopus_author_id"=>"23478694700"}, {"first_name"=>"Lawrence M.", "last_name"=>"Witmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601970331"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"77958550072", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013120", "pui"=>"359839304", "pmid"=>"20927347", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77958550072", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"8ac3245b-00b1-37d3-a785-8ebe27600c61", "abstract"=>"Extinct archosaurs, including many non-avian dinosaurs, exhibit relatively simply shaped condylar regions in their appendicular bones, suggesting potentially large amounts of unpreserved epiphyseal (articular) cartilage. This \"lost anatomy\" is often underappreciated such that the ends of bones are typically considered to be the joint surfaces, potentially having a major impact on functional interpretation. Extant alligators and birds were used to establish an objective basis for inferences about cartilaginous articular structures in such extinct archosaur clades as non-avian dinosaurs. Limb elements of alligators, ostriches, and other birds were dissected, disarticulated, and defleshed. Lengths and condylar shapes of elements with intact epiphyses were measured. Limbs were subsequently completely skeletonized and the measurements repeated. Removal of cartilaginous condylar regions resulted in statistically significant changes in element length and condylar breadth. Moreover, there was marked loss of those cartilaginous structures responsible for joint architecture and congruence. Compared to alligators, birds showed less dramatic, but still significant changes. Condylar morphologies of dinosaur limb bones suggest that most non-coelurosaurian clades possessed large cartilaginous epiphyses that relied on the maintenance of vascular channels that are otherwise eliminated early in ontogeny in smaller-bodied tetrapods. A sensitivity analysis using cartilage correction factors (CCFs) obtained from extant taxa indicates that whereas the presence of cartilaginous epiphyses only moderately increases estimates of dinosaur height and speed, it has important implications for our ability to infer joint morphology, posture, and the complicated functional movements in the limbs of many extinct archosaurs. Evidence suggests that the sizes of sauropod epiphyseal cartilages surpassed those of alligators, which account for at least 10% of hindlimb length. These data suggest that large cartilaginous epiphyses were widely distributed among non-avian archosaurs and must be considered when making inferences about locomotor functional morphology in fossil taxa.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cartilaginous-epiphyses-extant-archosaurs-implications-reconstructing-limb-function-dinosaurs", "reader_count"=>102, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>46}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>46}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>3, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827555"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Plesiomorphic tetrapod condition, also characteristic of turtles, crocodylians, birds, and likely non-avian dinosaurs. <b>B</b>, Lepidosaurian and therian condition. Modified from Haines <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Haines3\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extant", "tetrapod", "clades", "amounts", "epiphyseal"], "article_id"=>497921, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_extant_tetrapod_clades_retain_variable_amounts_of_epiphyseal_cartilage_/497921", "title"=>"Different extant tetrapod clades retain variable amounts of epiphyseal cartilage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:12:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828420"], "description"=>"<p>Results of Bonferroni-adjusted paired t-tests as follows:</p><p>*, <i>p</i><0.01;</p><p>‡, paired t-tests not applicable due to small sample size; nm, not measured. Abbreviations: GL, greatest length; CC, craniocaudal dimension; ML, mediolateral dimension; nm, dimension not measured.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["paired", "t-test", "changes", "reported", "percent", "taxa"], "article_id"=>498788, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_standard_deviation_and_paired_t_test_results_of_changes_in_limb_element_dimensions_reported_as_percent_change_of_all_taxa_after_skeletonization_/498788", "title"=>"Mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test results of changes in limb element dimensions, reported as percent change, of all taxa after skeletonization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:26:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828486"], "description"=>"<p>H<sub>o</sub>: there is no difference between compared elements. Results of <u>t</u>-tests: *, significant (<i>p</i><0.0); ns, not significant. Abbreviations as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone-0013120-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bonferroni-adjusted", "paired", "arcsin-transformed", "percent", "changes", "archosaur"], "article_id"=>498853, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Bonferroni_adjusted_paired_t_tests_of_arcsin_transformed_percent_changes_of_archosaur_limb_element_dimensions_/498853", "title"=>"Results of Bonferroni-adjusted paired t-tests of arcsin-transformed percent changes of archosaur limb element dimensions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:27:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828525"], "description"=>"<p><b><i>T. rex</i></b> posture (124°, knee; 147°, ankle), <b><i>Struthio</i></b> posture (109°, knee; 142°, ankle), and columnar (<b>Col</b>) posture. All values are ms<sup>−1</sup>. Limb length data were taken from Sereno and Arcucci <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Sereno2\" target=\"_blank\">[79]</a> and Hutchinson <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Hutchinson4\" target=\"_blank\">[69]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["articular", "cartilage", "posture", "velocity", "theropod"], "article_id"=>498887, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_articular_cartilage_and_posture_on_forward_velocity_of_slow_running_and_fast_running_theropod_dinosaurs_/498887", "title"=>"Effects of articular cartilage and posture on forward velocity of slow running and fast running theropod dinosaurs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:28:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828451"], "description"=>"<p>RMA regressions of log<sub>10</sub> difference between element with and without epiphyseal cartilage compared to log<sub>10</sub> femoral midshaft cross-sectional area. Abbreviations:</p><p>*, <i>p</i><0.05;</p><p>-, negative allometry (m<0.5); 0, isometry (m = 0.5).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epiphysis", "compared"], "article_id"=>498825, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Absolute_change_in_limb_length_after_epiphysis_removal_compared_to_body_size_in_Alligator_/498825", "title"=>"Absolute change in limb length after epiphysis removal compared to body size in <i>Alligator</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:27:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828562"], "description"=>"<p>CCF, correction factor,</p><p>*, feet not included in limb length estimate.</p><p><b>CCF</b>  =  mean change in lengths of femur plus tibia (from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone-0013120-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). <i>Alligator</i> CCF = 10.8%; Adult <i>Struthio</i> CCF = 6.8%; <i>Coturnix</i> CCF = 1.8%). Slow-running velocity (V) calculated by equation: v =  sqrt(1*9.8 ms<sup>−2</sup>*limb length[m]). Limb length data were taken from Marsh <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Marsh2\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>, Brown and Schlaikjer <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-BrownBSchlaikjer1\" target=\"_blank\">[121]</a>, Lull and Wright <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-LullRSWright1\" target=\"_blank\">[122]</a>, Mazzetta et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Mazzetta1\" target=\"_blank\">[88]</a>, and Royo-Torres et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-RoyoTorres1\" target=\"_blank\">[89]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epiphysis", "hindlimb", "non-theropod", "dinosaurs", "columnar"], "article_id"=>498923, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_epiphysis_size_on_hindlimb_length_and_estimated_speed_at_Fr_8202_8202_1_slow_running_in_representative_non_theropod_dinosaurs_with_a_columnar_limb_posture_/498923", "title"=>"Effects of epiphysis size on hindlimb length and estimated speed at Fr = 1 (slow running) in representative non-theropod dinosaurs with a columnar limb posture.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:28:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411849"], "description"=>"<div><p>Extinct archosaurs, including many non-avian dinosaurs, exhibit relatively simply shaped condylar regions in their appendicular bones, suggesting potentially large amounts of unpreserved epiphyseal (articular) cartilage. This “lost anatomy” is often underappreciated such that the ends of bones are typically considered to be the joint surfaces, potentially having a major impact on functional interpretation. Extant alligators and birds were used to establish an objective basis for inferences about cartilaginous articular structures in such extinct archosaur clades as non-avian dinosaurs. Limb elements of alligators, ostriches, and other birds were dissected, disarticulated, and defleshed. Lengths and condylar shapes of elements with intact epiphyses were measured. Limbs were subsequently completely skeletonized and the measurements repeated. Removal of cartilaginous condylar regions resulted in statistically significant changes in element length and condylar breadth. Moreover, there was marked loss of those cartilaginous structures responsible for joint architecture and congruence. Compared to alligators, birds showed less dramatic, but still significant changes. Condylar morphologies of dinosaur limb bones suggest that most non-coelurosaurian clades possessed large cartilaginous epiphyses that relied on the maintenance of vascular channels that are otherwise eliminated early in ontogeny in smaller-bodied tetrapods. A sensitivity analysis using cartilage correction factors (CCFs) obtained from extant taxa indicates that whereas the presence of cartilaginous epiphyses only moderately increases estimates of dinosaur height and speed, it has important implications for our ability to infer joint morphology, posture, and the complicated functional movements in the limbs of many extinct archosaurs. Evidence suggests that the sizes of sauropod epiphyseal cartilages surpassed those of alligators, which account for at least 10% of hindlimb length. These data suggest that large cartilaginous epiphyses were widely distributed among non-avian archosaurs and must be considered when making inferences about locomotor functional morphology in fossil taxa.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cartilaginous", "epiphyses", "extant", "archosaurs", "implications", "reconstructing", "dinosaurs"], "article_id"=>141361, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cartilaginous_Epiphyses_in_Extant_Archosaurs_and_Their_Implications_for_Reconstructing_Limb_Function_in_Dinosaurs/141361", "title"=>"Cartilaginous Epiphyses in Extant Archosaurs and Their Implications for Reconstructing Limb Function in Dinosaurs", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 00:22:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827947"], "description"=>"<p>Left distal humerus and proximal ulna (OUVC 9407) before (left) and after (right) skeletonization. <b>A</b> and <b>B</b>: humerus, distal end, cranial view. <b>C</b>, <b>D</b>: ulna, proximal end, cranial view. Abbreviations: <b>icp</b>, intercotylar process; <b>lhc</b>, lateral humeral condyle; <b>mhc</b>, medial humeral condyle; <b>op</b>, olecranon process. Scale bar increments equal 0.5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epiphyses"], "article_id"=>498322, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_epiphyses_of_Alligator_mississippiensis_upon_skeletonization_/498322", "title"=>"Changes in epiphyses of <i>Alligator mississippiensis</i> upon skeletonization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:18:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827739"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, measurements indicated on left femur of <i>Alligator mississippiensis</i> (American alligator) in medial view: CC, craniocaudal; GL, greatest length; ML, mediolateral. <b>B</b>, GL measurement for avian specimens indicated on left femur of <i>Struthio camelus</i> (ostrich) in cranial view. GL in birds equals the length from the distal condyles to trochanteric shelf (a) plus the length from the same point on the trochanteric shelf to the medial end of the femoral head (b). <b>C</b>, Segmental measurements and joint angles used from non-avian dinosaur speed estimates (adapted from Gatesy et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Gatesy1\" target=\"_blank\">[55]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conducted", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>498110, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_conducted_for_quantitative_analyses_/498110", "title"=>"Measurements conducted for quantitative analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:15:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828115"], "description"=>"<p>Adult (<b>A</b>–<b>D</b>; OUVC 9438) and subadult (<b>E</b>–<b>H</b>; OUVC 9439) right femora before (<b>left</b>) and after (<b>right</b>) skeletonization. <b>A, </b><b>B</b>: adult proximal end, cranial view. <b>C</b>, <b>D</b>: adult distal end, caudal view. <b>E</b>, <b>F</b>: subadult proximal end, cranial view. <b>G</b>, <b>H</b>: subadult distal end, caudal view. Abbreviations: <b>cut</b>, cut portion of cartilaginous epiphysis; <b>fov</b>, fovea; <b>icb</b>, intercondylar bridge; <b>lfc</b>, lateral femoral condyle; <b>mfc</b>, medial femoral condyle; <b>tr</b>, femoral trochanter. Scale bar increments equal 0.5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epiphyses"], "article_id"=>498486, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_epiphyses_of_Struthio_camelus_/498486", "title"=>"Changes in epiphyses of <i>Struthio camelus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828352"], "description"=>"<p><i>Postosuchus</i> redrawn from Chatterjee <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Chatterjee1\" target=\"_blank\">[105]</a>, <i>Leptosuchus</i> modified from Long and Murray <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Long1\" target=\"_blank\">[107]</a>; <i>Triceratops</i> modified from Dodson <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Dodson1\" target=\"_blank\">[80]</a>; <i>Plateosaurus</i> modified from Galton and Upchurch <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Galton2\" target=\"_blank\">[108]</a>; <i>Apatosaurus</i> modified from Ostrom and McIntosh <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Ostrom1\" target=\"_blank\">[110]</a>; <i>Coelophysis</i> modified from Colbert <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Colbert2\" target=\"_blank\">[109]</a>; <i>Allosaurus</i> modified from Madsen <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Madsen1\" target=\"_blank\">[113]</a>; <i>Deinonychus</i> modified from Ostrom <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Ostrom2\" target=\"_blank\">[114]</a>. Scale bar equals 10 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femora", "extinct", "archosaur", "taxa", "illustrating", "bony", "condylar", "suggesting", "amounts", "epiphyseal"], "article_id"=>498710, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skeletonized_femora_of_living_and_extinct_archosaur_taxa_illustrating_lack_of_bony_condylar_structures_suggesting_the_presence_of_significant_amounts_of_epiphyseal_cartilage_/498710", "title"=>"Skeletonized femora of living and extinct archosaur taxa illustrating lack of bony condylar structures, suggesting the presence of significant amounts of epiphyseal cartilage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:25:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827830"], "description"=>"<p>Left femur (OUVC 9407) before (<b>left</b>) and after (<b>right</b>) skeletonization. <b>A</b> and <b>B</b>: proximal end, cranial view. C, D: distal end, caudal view. Abbreviations: <b>ac</b>, articular cartilage; <b>cc</b>, calcified cartilage; <b>lig</b>, scar from ligaments and synovial capsule; <b>lfc</b>, lateral femoral condyle; <b>met</b>, metaphysis; <b>mfc</b>, medial femoral condyle. Scale bar increments equal 0.5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epiphyses"], "article_id"=>498203, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_epiphyses_of_Alligator_mississippiensis_upon_skeletonization_/498203", "title"=>"Changes in epiphyses of <i>Alligator mississippiensis</i> upon skeletonization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:16:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/828251"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>: adult (OUVC 9439); <b>B</b>: subadult (OUVC 9438) ostrich. Scale bar equals 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distal", "femora"], "article_id"=>498622, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Condylar_surface_texture_in_the_distal_femora_of_Struthio_camelus_/498622", "title"=>"Condylar surface texture in the distal femora of <i>Struthio camelus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:23:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827645"], "description"=>"<p>Phylogenetic relationships based on Brochu <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120#pone.0013120-Brochu1\" target=\"_blank\">[71]</a>. †, extinct taxa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extant", "extinct", "archosaur", "taxa", "examined", "epiphyseal"], "article_id"=>498005, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Casey M. Holliday", "Ryan C. Ridgely", "Jayc C. Sedlmayr", "Lawrence M. Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013120.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_framework_of_extant_and_extinct_archosaur_taxa_examined_in_this_study_including_characteristic_epiphyseal_morphology_/498005", "title"=>"Phylogenetic framework of extant and extinct archosaur taxa examined in this study including characteristic epiphyseal morphology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-30 02:13:25"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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