Variation in Courtship Ultrasounds of Three Ostrinia Moths with Different Sex Pheromones
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{"title"=>"Variation in courtship ultrasounds of three Ostrinia moths with different sex pheromones", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Takuma", "last_name"=>"Takanashi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005354624"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryo", "last_name"=>"Nakano", "scopus_author_id"=>"13907821100"}, {"first_name"=>"Annemarie", "last_name"=>"Surlykke", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701555597"}, {"first_name"=>"Haruki", "last_name"=>"Tatsuta", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004427487"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Tabata", "scopus_author_id"=>"23037154400"}, {"first_name"=>"Yukio", "last_name"=>"Ishikawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"35399516500"}, {"first_name"=>"Niels", "last_name"=>"Skals", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603231336"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78049287256", "sgr"=>"78049287256", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013144", "pmid"=>"20957230", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"359856589"}, "id"=>"117a4c33-74e3-308e-997a-68efd9d45494", "abstract"=>"Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we investigated features of ultrasound production and hearing in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, and compared them with those of O. furnacalis. As in O. furnacalis, males of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis produced ultrasounds during courtship by rubbing specialized scales on the wings against scales on the thorax. The covering of these scales with nail polish muffled the sounds and significantly reduced mating success in O. nubilalis, showing the importance of ultrasound signaling in mating. The ultrasounds produced by O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis were similar, consisting of long trains of pairs of pulses with a main energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among the geographic populations of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our results suggest that concordant evolution in sexual signals such as courtship ultrasounds and sex pheromones occurs in moths.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/variation-courtship-ultrasounds-three-ostrinia-moths-different-sex-pheromones", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Japan"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826400"], "description"=>"<p>Minor components of sex pheromones are indicated by an asterisk. <i>O. nubilalis</i> and <i>O. scapulalis</i> exhibit polymorphism in sex pheromones (Z and E types). Z11-14:OAc, E11-14:OAc, Z12-14:OAc, and E12-14:OAc denote (<i>Z</i>)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, (<i>E</i>)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, (<i>Z</i>)-12-tetradecenyl acetate, and (<i>E</i>)-12-tetradecenyl acetate, respectively. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method using mitochondrial COII gene sequences <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144-Miura1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "moths"], "article_id"=>496763, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationships_of_Ostrinia_moths_and_sex_pheromones_/496763", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationships of <i>Ostrinia</i> moths and sex pheromones.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 01:52:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826993"], "description"=>"<p>A) Black lines are hearing threshold curves obtained from four females of Z-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Darmstadt), and black dotted lines are those from three males. The red line is a curve from both sexes (<i>n</i> = 7). B) The red dotted line is a curve of E-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Paris, <i>n</i> = 5 for both sexes). The black line is a curve of Z-type <i>O. scapulalis</i> (Matsudo, <i>n</i> = 6) and black dotted line, E-type <i>O. scapulalis</i> (Matsudo, <i>n</i> = 6). The blue line is a curve from pooled populations of the two species. All curves were drawn using tensor product smoothers implemented by generalized additive models <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144-Wood1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone-0013144-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for collection sites of the populations examined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["curves"], "article_id"=>497356, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hearing_threshold_curves_in_O_nubilalis_and_O_scapulalis_/497356", "title"=>"Hearing threshold curves in <i>O. nubilalis</i> and <i>O. scapulalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 02:02:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826494"], "description"=>"<p>A) Photograph showing areas bearing the male-specific scales (indicated by dotted boxes) in <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Z type, Darmstadt). Left and right arrowheads indicate the male-specific scales on the right of the notum (dorsal plate of mesothorax) and basal part of the right forewing, respectively. The right tegula was removed to show the male-specific scales. Scale bar: 500 µm. B, C) Scanning electron micrographs showing male-specific scales (indicated by a black dotted ellipse) on the right mesothorax (B) and on the right forewing (white dotted ellipse) in <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Z type, Darmstadt) (C). D, E) Male-specific scales (black dotted ellipse) on the right mesothorax (D) and those (white dotted ellipse) on the right forewing in <i>O. scapulalis</i> (E type, Matsudo) (E). Note that some scales have naturally fallen out. Scale bars: B–E, 200 µm. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone-0013144-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for collection sites of the populations examined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scales", "wings", "thoraxes", "males"], "article_id"=>496853, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ultrasound_producing_scales_on_the_wings_and_thoraxes_of_the_males_of_O_nubilalis_and_O_scapulalis_/496853", "title"=>"Ultrasound-producing scales on the wings and thoraxes of the males of <i>O. nubilalis</i> and <i>O. scapulalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 01:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827047"], "description"=>"<p>Values are the mean ± SD.</p><p>*<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01,</p><p>***<i>P</i><0.001 (Likelihood ratio test in a generalized linear mixed model). See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone-0013144-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for the code of the geographical populations examined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geographical", "populations"], "article_id"=>497411, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_features_of_pulse_1_and_pulse_2_in_geographical_populations_of_Ostrinia_nubilalis_and_Ostrinia_scapulalis_/497411", "title"=>"Temporal features of pulse 1 and pulse 2 in geographical populations of <i>Ostrinia nubilalis</i> and <i>Ostrinia scapulalis</i><b>.</b>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 02:03:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826905"], "description"=>"<p>A) Examples of waveforms of pulse 1 in Z-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Toulouse) and in E-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Warloy). Two figures are drawn to the same scale. B) The autocorrelation coefficients of the amplitudes were calculated up to 30 lags corresponding to 0.1 ms in Z-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Toulouse) (left) and E-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Warloy) (right). C) Plots of the first two canonical variate scores for autocorrelation coefficients of pulse envelops in <i>O. nubilalis</i> and <i>O. scapulalis</i> (<i>n</i> = 33). Ninety-five percent confidence ellipses of the centroid of the first two canonical variate scores are shown. The first and second canonical variates (CV1 and CV2) explained 73.9% of the total variance (46.8% attributed to CV1, and 27.1% to CV2), successfully summarizing overall differences. nub Z, Z-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Darmstadt and Toulouse); nub E, E-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Warloy); sca Z, Z-type <i>O. scapulalis</i> (Morioka); sca E, E-type <i>O. scapulalis</i> (Furukawa). P1 and P2 denote pulse 1 and pulse 2, respectively. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone-0013144-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for collection sites of the populations examined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficients", "amplitudes"], "article_id"=>497268, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Autocorrelation_coefficients_of_pulse_amplitudes_in_O_nubilalis_and_O_scapulalis_/497268", "title"=>"Autocorrelation coefficients of pulse amplitudes in <i>O. nubilalis</i> and <i>O. scapulalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 02:01:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827130"], "description"=>"a<p>Genetic polymorphism in female sex pheromone blend. Z-type females produce 97–99% (<i>Z</i>)-11-tetradecenyl acetate and 1–3% (<i>E</i>)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, whereas E-type females produce the opposite blend <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144-Klun1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144-Huang1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144-Takanashi1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["populations", "europe", "japan", "analyses"], "article_id"=>497492, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Localities_of_Ostrinia_populations_collected_in_Europe_and_Japan_for_the_analyses_of_ultrasound_/497492", "title"=>"Localities of <i>Ostrinia</i> populations collected in Europe and Japan for the analyses of ultrasound.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 02:04:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827088"], "description"=>"a<p>Sham, ordinary scales on both mesothorax and forewings were covered with nail polish; Muted, sound scales on mesothorax and forewings were covered with nail polish (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone-0013144-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). A significant difference in female response is found between the male treatment groups (Likelihood ratio test in a generalized linear model, binomial error with logit link, <i>χ<sup>2</sup><sub>1,3</sub></i> = 5.35, <i>P</i> = 0.021).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mating", "z-type"], "article_id"=>497451, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_male_sound_production_on_mating_success_in_Z_type_Ostrinia_nubilalis_/497451", "title"=>"Influence of male sound production on mating success in Z-type <i>Ostrinia nubilalis.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 02:04:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826638"], "description"=>"<p>A) Ultrasounds of <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Z type, Darmstadt). Upper: oscillogram showing the entire song train. Middle: expanded oscillogram showing pulse pairs including pulse 1 (P1) and pulse 2 (P2), which exhibit different temporal features and amplitudes. Lower: spectrogram of the three pulse pairs. P1 is defined as the pulse in a pulse pair with the shorter pulse interval. PD and PI denote pulse duration and pulse interval, respectively. B) Pulse pairs of <i>O. scapulalis</i> (Z type, Morioka). C) A pulse group of <i>O. furnacalis</i>. Audio files of Z-type <i>O. nubilalis</i>, Z-type <i>O. scapulalis</i> and <i>O. furnacalis</i> are available online in the supplementary materials (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Audio S1</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a>, and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a>). See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone-0013144-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for collection sites of the populations examined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ultrasounds"], "article_id"=>497002, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Courtship_ultrasounds_of_O_nubilalis_O_scapulalis_and_O_furnacalis_/497002", "title"=>"Courtship ultrasounds of <i>O. nubilalis</i>, <i>O. scapulalis</i>, and <i>O. furnacalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 01:56:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826832"], "description"=>"<p>Black lines are spectra of pulse 1 (P1), and red lines are those of pulse 2 (P2). A) Thin lines are individual spectra of P1 and P2, and thick lines are the mean spectra of P1 and P2 in Z-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Darmstadt, <i>n</i> = 5). One spectrum with low peak level of P2 differed from all others, and might be a noise. B) Solid lines are the mean spectra of P1 and P2 in Z-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Toulouse, <i>n</i> = 9), and dotted lines are the mean spectra of P1 and P2 in E-type <i>O. nubilalis</i> (Warloy, <i>n</i> = 5). C) Solid lines are the mean spectra of P1 and P2 in Z-type <i>O. scapulalis</i> (Morioka, <i>n</i> = 7), and dotted lines are the mean spectra of P1 and P2 in E-type <i>O. scapulalis</i> (Furukawa, <i>n</i> = 7). The blue line is the mean spectrum of <i>O. furnacalis</i> (<i>n</i> = 5) obtained from Nakano et al. (2008) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone.0013144-Nakano2\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144#pone-0013144-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for collection sites of the populations examined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pulses"], "article_id"=>497196, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_frequency_sound_pressure_level_distribution_of_pulses_in_O_nubilalis_O_scapulalis_and_O_furnacalis_/497196", "title"=>"The frequency–sound pressure level distribution of pulses in <i>O. nubilalis</i>, <i>O. scapulalis</i>, and <i>O. furnacalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 01:59:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411680", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411686", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411690"], "description"=>"<div><p>Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, <em>Ostrinia nubilalis</em>, and its Asian congeners, <em>Ostrinia furnacalis</em> and <em>Ostrinia scapulalis</em>, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in <em>O. furnacalis</em>; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we investigated features of ultrasound production and hearing in <em>O. nubilalis</em> and <em>O. scapulalis</em>, and compared them with those of <em>O. furnacalis</em>. As in <em>O. furnacalis</em>, males of <em>O. nubilalis</em> and <em>O. scapulalis</em> produced ultrasounds during courtship by rubbing specialized scales on the wings against scales on the thorax. The covering of these scales with nail polish muffled the sounds and significantly reduced mating success in <em>O. nubilalis</em>, showing the importance of ultrasound signaling in mating. The ultrasounds produced by <em>O. nubilalis</em> and <em>O. scapulalis</em> were similar, consisting of long trains of pairs of pulses with a main energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by <em>O. furnacalis</em>, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among the geographic populations of <em>O. nubilalis</em> and <em>O. scapulalis</em>, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our results suggest that concordant evolution in sexual signals such as courtship ultrasounds and sex pheromones occurs in moths.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["courtship", "ultrasounds", "moths", "pheromones"], "article_id"=>141316, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Takuma Takanashi", "Ryo Nakano", "Annemarie Surlykke", "Haruki Tatsuta", "Jun Tabata", "Yukio Ishikawa", "Niels Skals"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013144.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Variation_in_Courtship_Ultrasounds_of_Three_Ostrinia_Moths_with_Different_Sex_Pheromones/141316", "title"=>"Variation in Courtship Ultrasounds of Three <em>Ostrinia</em> Moths with Different Sex Pheromones", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-10-04 00:21:56"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[288, 576, 733, 867, 984, 1087, 1182, 1267, 1346, 1424, 1501, 1577, 1646, 1711, 1778, 1841, 1908, 1970, 2034, 2102, 2162, 2227, 2296, 2359, 2422, 2482, 2550, 2610, 2679, 2747, 2820, 2887, 2955, 3009, 3067, 3130, 3200, 3257, 3322, 3379, 3443, 3507, 3571, 3632, 3683, 3753, 3822, 3877]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Veterinary science", "average_usage"=>[250, 530, 676, 800, 900, 1008, 1091, 1176, 1262, 1327, 1399, 1436, 1487, 1550, 1631, 1698, 1757, 1827, 1895, 1945, 2007, 2062, 2120, 2175, 2242, 2289, 2343, 2404, 2465, 2531, 2579, 2642, 2704, 2761, 2819, 2869, 2932, 2982, 3074, 3139, 3199, 3248, 3318, 3385, 3447, 3506, 3564, 3635, 3684]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Signal processing", "average_usage"=>[303, 550, 658, 779, 868, 949, 1028, 1095, 1171, 1216, 1266, 1326, 1384, 1442, 1484, 1518, 1555, 1595, 1655, 1703, 1740, 1766, 1807, 1827, 1871, 1909, 1955, 2004, 2055, 2125, 2152, 2189, 2227, 2267, 2295, 2333, 2391, 2426, 2529, 2547, 2589, 2616, 2663, 2724, 2779, 2810, 2845, 2899, 2944]}]}
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