Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing
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{"title"=>"Stranger to familiar: Wild strepsirhines manage xenophobia by playing", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniela", "last_name"=>"Antonacci", "scopus_author_id"=>"16308629700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivan", "last_name"=>"Norscia", "scopus_author_id"=>"23100664200"}, {"first_name"=>"Elisabetta", "last_name"=>"Palagi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602364981"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20949052", "sgr"=>"78049320329", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013218", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78049320329", "pui"=>"359856660", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"5f543022-00b3-36ef-83bc-f59881e52b23", "abstract"=>"The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger \"audience\". Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that \"upgrades\" an individual from stranger to familiar.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/stranger-familiar-wild-strepsirhines-manage-xenophobia-playing", "reader_count"=>54, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Psychology"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825512"], "description"=>"<p>According to the three conditions, the hourly distribution of grooming frequency is reported as follows: male-OUTmale (grooming interactions between males of the observed groups and outgroup males), male-INmale (grooming interactions between males of the observed groups during the visit of outgroup males), and male-BL-INmale (grooming interactions between males of the observed groups recorded in absence of outgroup males) (<b>a</b>). According to the three conditions, the hourly distribution of grooming frequency is reported as follows: female-OUTmale (grooming interactions between females and outgroup males), female-INmale (grooming interactions between females and ingroup males during the visit of outgroups), female-BL-INmale (grooming interactions between females and ingroup males recorded when the outgroup males were absent) (<b>b</b>). Solid horizontal lines indicate medians; length of the boxes corresponds to inter-quartile range; thin horizontal lines indicate range of observed values. Only statistically significant values are reported on the figure. Single asterisk (*): p<0.05; Double asterisk (**): p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grooming", "animals"], "article_id"=>495881, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Daniela Antonacci", "Ivan Norscia", "Elisabetta Palagi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013218.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Levels_of_grooming_between_resident_animals_and_between_resident_and_stranger_animals_/495881", "title"=>"Levels of grooming between resident animals and between resident and stranger animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-07 01:38:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825419"], "description"=>"<p>According to the three conditions, the hourly distribution of play frequency are reported as follows: male-OUTmale (play interactions between males of the observed groups and outgroup males), male-INmale (play interactions between males of the observed groups during the visit of outgroup males), and male-BL-INmale (play interactions between males of the observed groups recorded in absence of outgroup males). Solid horizontal lines indicate medians; length of the boxes corresponds to inter-quartile range; thin horizontal lines indicate range of observed values. Only statistically significant values are reported on the figure. The single asterisk (*) indicates p<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["males"], "article_id"=>495791, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Daniela Antonacci", "Ivan Norscia", "Elisabetta Palagi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013218.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Levels_of_play_between_resident_males_and_between_resident_and_stranger_males_/495791", "title"=>"Levels of play between resident males and between resident and stranger males.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-07 01:36:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825580"], "description"=>"<p>According to the three conditions, the hourly distribution of aggression frequency is reported as follows: IN-OUTbefore-play (aggressions between resident and outgroup males before play), IN-OUTafter-play (aggressions between resident and outgroup males following play), and IN-IN (aggressions between residents). Solid horizontal lines indicate medians; length of the boxes corresponds to inter-quartile range; thin horizontal lines indicate range of observed values. Only statistically significant values are reported on the figure. Single asterisk (*): p<0.05; Double asterisk (**): p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aggressions", "males"], "article_id"=>495952, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Daniela Antonacci", "Ivan Norscia", "Elisabetta Palagi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013218.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Levels_of_aggressions_between_resident_and_stranger_males_before_and_after_play_/495952", "title"=>"Levels of aggressions between resident and stranger males before and after play.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-07 01:39:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825677"], "description"=>"<p>Rough and Gentle play interactions that occurred between resident males (ingroup-ingroup males) (<b>a</b>) and between resident and stranger males (outgroup-ingroup males) (<b>b</b>). The single asterisk (*) indicates p<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evolutionary biology/animal behavior", "evolutionary biology/sexual behavior", "evolutionary biology/human evolution"], "article_id"=>496046, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Daniela Antonacci", "Ivan Norscia", "Elisabetta Palagi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013218.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differences_in_play_modality_/496046", "title"=>"Differences in play modality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-07 01:40:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411546", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411577", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411614"], "description"=>"<div><p>The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (<em>Propithecus verreauxi</em>, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger “audience”. Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that “upgrades” an individual from stranger to familiar.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strepsirhines", "xenophobia", "playing"], "article_id"=>141291, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Daniela Antonacci", "Ivan Norscia", "Elisabetta Palagi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013218.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013218.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013218.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Stranger_to_Familiar_Wild_Strepsirhines_Manage_Xenophobia_by_Playing/141291", "title"=>"Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-10-07 00:21:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825739"], "description"=>"<p>Play behavioural patterns observed in adult sifaka over 481 play sessions recorded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behavioural", "patterns", "observed", "sifaka", "481", "sessions"], "article_id"=>496106, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Daniela Antonacci", "Ivan Norscia", "Elisabetta Palagi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013218.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Play_behavioural_patterns_observed_in_adult_sifaka_over_481_play_sessions_recorded_/496106", "title"=>"Play behavioural patterns observed in adult sifaka over 481 play sessions recorded.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-07 01:41:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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