Do Scientific Advancements Lean on the Shoulders of Giants? A Bibliometric Investigation of the Ortega Hypothesis
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{"title"=>"Do scientific advancements lean on the shoulders of giants? A bibliometric investigation of the Ortega hypothesis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lutz", "last_name"=>"Bornmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"8850037200"}, {"first_name"=>"Félix", "last_name"=>"De Moya Anegón", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194647093"}, {"first_name"=>"Loet", "last_name"=>"Leydesdorff", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003954276"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20967252", "sgr"=>"78149450645", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013327", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78149450645", "pui"=>"359931027", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"4f0d7851-fbe6-3112-bf71-e14e16c2d9dc", "abstract"=>"In contrast to Newton's well-known aphorism that he had been able “to see further only by standing on the shoulders of giants,” one attributes to the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset the hypothesis saying that top-level research cannot be successful without a mass of medium researchers on which the top rests comparable to an iceberg. The Ortega hypothesis predicts that highly-cited papers and medium-cited (or lowly-cited) papers would equally refer to papers with a medium impact. The Newton hypothesis would be supported if the top-level research more frequently cites previously highly-cited work than that medium-level research cites highly-cited work. Our analysis is based on (i) all articles and proceedings papers which were published in 2003 in the life sciences, health sciences, physical sciences, and social sciences, and (ii) all articles and proceeding papers which were cited within these publications. The results show that highly-cited work in all scientific fields more frequently cites previously highly-cited papers than that medium-cited work cites highly-cited work. We demonstrate that papers contributing to the scientific progress in a field lean to a larger extent on previously important contributions than papers contributing little. These findings support the Newton hypothesis and call into question the Ortega hypothesis (given our usage of citation counts as a proxy for impact).", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/scientific-advancements-lean-shoulders-giants-bibliometric-investigation-ortega-hypothesis", "reader_count"=>103, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>5, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>5, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>6, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>16, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>32}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>32}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>16}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>6}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Malaysia"=>1, "Spain"=>3, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>3, "Sweden"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>6, "Denmark"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825127"], "description"=>"<p>The red lines refer to the cited references in all papers published in 2003; the other lines refer to cited references in papers with different citation impacts. The graphs in the left column are based on cited references from the years 1996 to 2003, and the graphs in the right column are based on cited references from 2002 only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cited", "references", "papers", "published", "2003", "sciences", "categorized", "percentile"], "article_id"=>495485, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Lutz Bornmann", "Félix de Moya Anegón", "Loet Leydesdorff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013327.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Share_of_cited_references_in_papers_published_in_2003_in_life_sciences_health_sciences_physical_sciences_and_social_sciences_categorized_into_different_percentile_rank_classes_/495485", "title"=>"Share of cited references in papers published in 2003 in life sciences, health sciences, physical sciences and social sciences categorized into different percentile rank classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:57:03"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"6", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"6", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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