Diversity Promotes Temporal Stability across Levels of Ecosystem Organization in Experimental Grasslands
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{"title"=>"Diversity promotes temporal stability across levels of ecosystem organization in experimental grasslands", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Raphaël", "last_name"=>"Proulx", "scopus_author_id"=>"56249047300"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian", "last_name"=>"Wirth", "scopus_author_id"=>"35429150600"}, {"first_name"=>"Winfried", "last_name"=>"Voigt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006009760"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexandra", "last_name"=>"Weigelt", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602406403"}, {"first_name"=>"Christiane", "last_name"=>"Roscher", "scopus_author_id"=>"15726394900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sabine", "last_name"=>"Attinger", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602730435"}, {"first_name"=>"Jussi", "last_name"=>"Baade", "scopus_author_id"=>"25228446600"}, {"first_name"=>"Romain L.", "last_name"=>"Barnard", "scopus_author_id"=>"8272326500"}, {"first_name"=>"Nina", "last_name"=>"Buchmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003333258"}, {"first_name"=>"François", "last_name"=>"Buscot", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603735012"}, {"first_name"=>"Nico", "last_name"=>"Eisenhauer", "scopus_author_id"=>"22939857600"}, {"first_name"=>"Markus", "last_name"=>"Fischer", "scopus_author_id"=>"24325048800"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerd", "last_name"=>"Gleixner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003702150"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan", "last_name"=>"Halle", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003466293"}, {"first_name"=>"Anke", "last_name"=>"Hildebrandt", "scopus_author_id"=>"23027811500"}, {"first_name"=>"Esther", "last_name"=>"Kowalski", "scopus_author_id"=>"36572063200"}, {"first_name"=>"Annely", "last_name"=>"Kuu", "scopus_author_id"=>"16042690400"}, {"first_name"=>"Markus", "last_name"=>"Lange", "scopus_author_id"=>"36572061700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex", "last_name"=>"Milcu", "scopus_author_id"=>"14056402700"}, {"first_name"=>"Pascal A.", "last_name"=>"Niklaus", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603954904"}, {"first_name"=>"Yvonne", "last_name"=>"Oelmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"9336596400"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephan", "last_name"=>"Rosenkranz", "scopus_author_id"=>"56343973200"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander", "last_name"=>"Sabais", "scopus_author_id"=>"25641982900"}, {"first_name"=>"Christoph", "last_name"=>"Scherber", "scopus_author_id"=>"12760184400"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Scherer-Lorenzen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603069159"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan", "last_name"=>"Scheu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006140205"}, {"first_name"=>"Ernst Detlef", "last_name"=>"Schulze", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103397558"}, {"first_name"=>"Jens", "last_name"=>"Schumacher", "scopus_author_id"=>"55704150600"}, {"first_name"=>"Guido", "last_name"=>"Schwichtenberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"36877072900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean François", "last_name"=>"Soussana", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004515951"}, {"first_name"=>"Vicky M.", "last_name"=>"Temperton", "scopus_author_id"=>"8367177100"}, {"first_name"=>"Wolfgang W.", "last_name"=>"Weisser", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004605030"}, {"first_name"=>"Wolfgang", "last_name"=>"Wilcke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006733599"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernhard", "last_name"=>"Schmid", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102653764"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78149459500", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013382", "sgr"=>"78149459500", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013382", "pmid"=>"20967213", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"359931007"}, "id"=>"ab9fdee2-9bb9-3b34-945a-b0ccc2fe192c", "abstract"=>"The diversity-stability hypothesis states that current losses of biodiversity can impair the ability of an ecosystem to dampen the effect of environmental perturbations on its functioning. Using data from a long-term and comprehensive biodiversity experiment, we quantified the temporal stability of 42 variables characterizing twelve ecological functions in managed grassland plots varying in plant species richness. We demonstrate that diversity increases stability i) across trophic levels (producer, consumer), ii) at both the system (community, ecosystem) and the component levels (population, functional group, phylogenetic clade), and iii) primarily for aboveground rather than belowground processes. Temporal synchronization across studied variables was mostly unaffected with increasing species richness. This study provides the strongest empirical support so far that diversity promotes stability across different ecological functions and levels of ecosystem organization in grasslands.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/diversity-promotes-temporal-stability-across-levels-ecosystem-organization-experimental-grasslands", "reader_count"=>214, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>56, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>59, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>56, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>59, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Environmental Science"=>62, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>125, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>125}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>11}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>62}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>2, "Canada"=>5, "Belgium"=>1, "China"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>7, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>7}, "group_count"=>7}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/824949"], "description"=>"<p>‘Obs: Plots’ gives the number of measurements recorded across the reported time extent (temporal observations) and the number of assembled species mixtures in which the variables were measured (experimental plots). Superscript letters next to the time extent indicate whether the temporal dynamics of a variable was predominantly seasonal (s) or inter-annual (i). Each ecological function is represented in a multivariate space by three or four field variables, each variable characterizing a different facet of that function at one level of organization (in capital bold letters). Prior to the analyses, each variable was linearly scaled to remove the effect of measurement units.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["42", "variables"], "article_id"=>495266, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Raphaël Proulx", "Christian Wirth", "Winfried Voigt", "Alexandra Weigelt", "Christiane Roscher", "Sabine Attinger", "Jussi Baade", "Romain L. Barnard", "Nina Buchmann", "François Buscot", "Nico Eisenhauer", "Markus Fischer", "Gerd Gleixner", "Stefan Halle", "Anke Hildebrandt", "Esther Kowalski", "Annely Kuu", "Markus Lange", "Alex Milcu", "Pascal A. Niklaus", "Yvonne Oelmann", "Stephan Rosenkranz", "Alexander Sabais", "Christoph Scherber", "Michael Scherer-Lorenzen", "Stefan Scheu", "Ernst-Detlef Schulze", "Jens Schumacher", "Guido Schwichtenberg", "Jean-François Soussana", "Vicky M. Temperton", "Wolfgang W. Weisser", "Wolfgang Wilcke", "Bernhard Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013382.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_42_variables_used_to_characterize_the_stability_of_twelve_ecological_functions_/495266", "title"=>"Summary of 42 variables used to characterize the stability of twelve ecological functions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:56:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/824815"], "description"=>"<p>EB: Earthworm Biomass; PH: Parasitic Hymenoptera; IPBP: Invasive Plant Bioregulation of Populations; BGI: Below-Ground Invertebrates; AGI: Above-Ground Invertebrates; PFGB: Plant Functional Group Biomass; PSS: Plant Stand Structure; IPBC: Invasive Plant Bioregulation of Communities; AD: Arthropod Diversity; SWC: Soil Water Content; SNC: Soil Nutrient Concentration; TGF: Trace Gas Fluxes. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013382#pone-0013382-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for additional details on the number of experimental plots in each ecological function.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["co-variance", "cv", "plots"], "article_id"=>495134, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Raphaël Proulx", "Christian Wirth", "Winfried Voigt", "Alexandra Weigelt", "Christiane Roscher", "Sabine Attinger", "Jussi Baade", "Romain L. Barnard", "Nina Buchmann", "François Buscot", "Nico Eisenhauer", "Markus Fischer", "Gerd Gleixner", "Stefan Halle", "Anke Hildebrandt", "Esther Kowalski", "Annely Kuu", "Markus Lange", "Alex Milcu", "Pascal A. Niklaus", "Yvonne Oelmann", "Stephan Rosenkranz", "Alexander Sabais", "Christoph Scherber", "Michael Scherer-Lorenzen", "Stefan Scheu", "Ernst-Detlef Schulze", "Jens Schumacher", "Guido Schwichtenberg", "Jean-François Soussana", "Vicky M. Temperton", "Wolfgang W. Weisser", "Wolfgang Wilcke", "Bernhard Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013382.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_positive_co_variance_CV_across_experimental_plots_in_each_ecological_function_/495134", "title"=>"Proportion of positive co-variance CV across experimental plots in each ecological function.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:55:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/824666"], "description"=>"<p>Each dot represents the mean of temporal stability values (vertical axes) obtained across experimental plots sowed with the same number of plant species (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 60 species). Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval around the mean. Each temporal stability measure was standardized with a mean of zero and variance of one to ease the comparison of diversity–stability relationships within and between organizational levels. The left panels (A–D) show the relationships between plant species richness and the variance CV, while the right panels (E–H) show the relationships to the co-variance CV. No measurements were available for species richness treatments 2 and 8 in Earthworm Biomass, Parasitic Hymenoptera, Below- and Aboveground Invertebrates, and Arthropod Diversity production functions. For each component of temporal stability we report Pearson's correlation coefficient r estimated by a linear fit between the logarithm of plant species richness and one component of temporal stability. The number of stars next to Pearson's r values gives the probability of accepting the null hypothesis following a distribution-free randomization test <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013382#pone.0013382-Legendre1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a> (df are in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013382#pone-0013382-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>): Blank (p>0.05), *(p<0.05), **(p<0.01), ***(p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "functions", "grouped", "levels"], "article_id"=>494966, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Raphaël Proulx", "Christian Wirth", "Winfried Voigt", "Alexandra Weigelt", "Christiane Roscher", "Sabine Attinger", "Jussi Baade", "Romain L. Barnard", "Nina Buchmann", "François Buscot", "Nico Eisenhauer", "Markus Fischer", "Gerd Gleixner", "Stefan Halle", "Anke Hildebrandt", "Esther Kowalski", "Annely Kuu", "Markus Lange", "Alex Milcu", "Pascal A. Niklaus", "Yvonne Oelmann", "Stephan Rosenkranz", "Alexander Sabais", "Christoph Scherber", "Michael Scherer-Lorenzen", "Stefan Scheu", "Ernst-Detlef Schulze", "Jens Schumacher", "Guido Schwichtenberg", "Jean-François Soussana", "Vicky M. Temperton", "Wolfgang W. Weisser", "Wolfgang Wilcke", "Bernhard Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013382.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diversity_8211_stability_relationships_for_the_twelve_ecological_functions_grouped_by_levels_of_organization_/494966", "title"=>"Diversity–stability relationships for the twelve ecological functions grouped by levels of organization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:54:22"}

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Relative Metric

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