The Manipulative Complexity of Lower Paleolithic Stone Toolmaking
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The manipulative complexity of lower paleolithic stone toolmaking", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Aldo", "last_name"=>"Faisal", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602900233"}, {"first_name"=>"Dietrich", "last_name"=>"Stout", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005460155"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan", "last_name"=>"Apel", "scopus_author_id"=>"36898232900"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruce", "last_name"=>"Bradley", "scopus_author_id"=>"35877180000"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"359941785", "sgr"=>"78149476240", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21072164", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78149476240", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013718", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"772d51f1-dbb9-3575-a047-2e72b01d4370", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Early stone tools provide direct evidence of human cognitive and behavioral evolution that is otherwise unavailable. Proper interpretation of these data requires a robust interpretive framework linking archaeological evidence to specific behavioral and cognitive actions.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we employ a data glove to record manual joint angles in a modern experimental toolmaker (the 4(th) author) replicating ancient tool forms in order to characterize and compare the manipulative complexity of two major Lower Paleolithic technologies (Oldowan and Acheulean). To this end we used a principled and general measure of behavioral complexity based on the statistics of joint movements.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This allowed us to confirm that previously observed differences in brain activation associated with Oldowan versus Acheulean technologies reflect higher-level behavior organization rather than lower-level differences in manipulative complexity. This conclusion is consistent with a scenario in which the earliest stages of human technological evolution depended on novel perceptual-motor capacities (such as the control of joint stiffness) whereas later developments increasingly relied on enhanced mechanisms for cognitive control. This further suggests possible links between toolmaking and language evolution.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/manipulative-complexity-lower-paleolithic-stone-toolmaking", "reader_count"=>127, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>7, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>7, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Arts and Humanities"=>31, "Philosophy"=>2, "Computer Science"=>6, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>24, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>24}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>31}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Sudan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Portugal"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/78149476240"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/78149476240?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=78149476240&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=78149476240&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/78149476240", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:78149476240", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-78149476240", "dc:title"=>"The manipulative complexity of lower paleolithic stone toolmaking", "dc:creator"=>"Faisal A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"5", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"11", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2010-11-18", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"2010", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013718", "citedby-count"=>"56", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Imperial College London", "affiliation-city"=>"London", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21072164", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e13718", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0013718", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"390", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"1698"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"280"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"137"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"115"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"207"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"279"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"115"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"225"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"356"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"318"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"384"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"301"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"173"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"177"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"138"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"247"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"115"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"165"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"134"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"102"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"624"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"102"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"332"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"238"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"181"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"107"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"139"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821369"], "description"=>"<p>Curves show the cumulative sum of variance explained by increasing numbers of principal components for 5 Acheulean and 3 Oldowan reduction sequences. Principal component analysis is of Acheulean (blue triangles, one for each of the corresponding 5 toolmaking sequences and for each principal component) and Oldowan (red circles, 3 toolmaking sequences) hand configuration data of the core holding (left) hand, when the hammerstone hand was moving faster than 0.5 m/s. Note, that some data points overlap for Principal Component 1 and higher order Principal Components. Inset: Conceptual drawing of Principle Component Analysis (PCA). PCA is a linear transformation that seeks to explain multiple, correlated dimensions (X1, X2) of variation in the data (grey cloud) in terms of uncorrelated dimensions termed principal components (PC1, PC2). This linearly uncorrelated representation can then be used to reduce the dimensionality of the 2-dimensional data, e.g. describing the data set by using only PC1 as 1-dimensional data set (effectively capturing the longitudinal characteristic structure of the data). We do not reduce the dimensionality of the data <i>per se</i>, but use the relative amount of variance explained by each principle component as a characteristic value for the complexity of the data set.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["explained", "components", "configurations"], "article_id"=>491739, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Aldo Faisal", "Dietrich Stout", "Jan Apel", "Bruce Bradley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013718.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variability_explained_by_principal_components_of_stable_hand_configurations_data_from_automatic_annotation_/491739", "title"=>"Variability explained by principal components of stable hand configurations (data from automatic annotation).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821054"], "description"=>"<p>A stone ‘core’ (A) is struck with a hammerstone (B) in order to detach sharp stone ‘flakes’. In Oldowan toolmaking (C, top) the detached flakes (left in photo) are used as simple cutting tools and the core (right in photo) is waste. In Acheulean toolmaking (C, bottom), strategic flake detachments are used to shape the core into a desired form, such as a handaxe. Both forms of toolmaking are associated with activation of left ventral premotor cortex (PMv), Acheulean toolmaking activates additional regions in the right hemisphere, including the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) of the inferior parietal lobule, right PMv, and the right hemisphere homolog of anterior Broca's area: Brodmann area 45 (BA 45) (Imaging data adapted from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013718#pone.0013718-Stout2\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["palaeolithic"], "article_id"=>491421, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Aldo Faisal", "Dietrich Stout", "Jan Apel", "Bruce Bradley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013718.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lower_Palaeolithic_toolmaking_/491421", "title"=>"Lower Palaeolithic toolmaking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821172"], "description"=>"<p>Time series of the 18 joint sensors on the data glove (photo left). Period of rapid hand configuration changes (blue shaded region) frame a period of stability (clear region). This stability period corresponds to the period just before and during a percussion strike, as obtained from the manually annotated video. (Bottom) Velocity profile of the hammerstone wielding hand aligned with the plot above. The ‘percussion’ event is clearly visible in the velocity spike (top blue arrow).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["core-holding", "velocity", "hammerstone", "wielding", "annotation"], "article_id"=>491534, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Aldo Faisal", "Dietrich Stout", "Jan Apel", "Bruce Bradley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013718.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stability_of_the_core_holding_left_hand_and_velocity_profile_of_the_hammerstone_wielding_hand_right_hand_as_well_as_manual_video_annotation_of_a_8216_percussion_8217_event_Top_/491534", "title"=>"Stability of the core-holding (left hand) and velocity profile of the hammerstone wielding hand (right hand), as well as manual video annotation of a ‘percussion’ event (Top).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:36:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821273"], "description"=>"<p>Solid lines are Gaussian distributions with mean and standard deviation matched to the empirical joint angle histograms. Plots have a logarithmic vertical axis, such that the data and the matching Gaussian distributions appear as parabolas. The configuration of the hand was determined by the following joints (from left to right, top to bottom): the carpo-metacarpal (ThumbTMJ), metacarpal-phalangeal (ThumbMPJ) and interphalangeal (ThumbIJ) joint angles for the thumb and the abduction angle (ThumbAbduct) between the thumb and the palm of the hand, the metacarpal-phalangeal (MPJ) and proximal interphalangeal (PIJ) joint angles for the four fingers, the three relative abduction angles between the four fingers (MiddleIndexAbduct, RingMiddleAbduct, PinkieRingAbduct), as well as the arching and bending (during flexion/extension, ulnar/radial deviation) of the palm surface with respect to the wrist (PalmArch, WristPitch,WristYaw). Note, the joint angle zero is relative to the joint angle on our calibration splints.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["angles", "18", "oldowan", "acheulean"], "article_id"=>491644, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Aldo Faisal", "Dietrich Stout", "Jan Apel", "Bruce Bradley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013718.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_distribution_or_relative_frequency_or_proportion_of_total_time_of_joint_angles_for_18_joint_angles_of_the_left_hand_during_Oldowan_blue_dots_and_Acheulean_red_dots_toolmaking_/491644", "title"=>"Probability distribution (or relative frequency or proportion of total time) of joint angles for 18 joint angles of the left hand during Oldowan (blue dots) and Acheulean (red dots) toolmaking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:36:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821464"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Cumulative variability (%) explained by principal components of stable hand configurations (from manual annotation). Data points overlap for Principal Component(PC) 1 and higher order PCs. (B) Comparison of manually versus automatically annotated data. Plot of variance explained by principal components analysis of stable hand configurations: Variance explained of all principal component calculated for manually classified Acheulean percussion events (blue), Acheulean light percussion events (black) and Oldowan percussion events (red) plotted versus corresponding principal components of automatically annotated Acheulean (triangle) and Oldowan (circle) percussion-like events. E.g. the curve with black triangles, shows the principal components from 1 to 18 of the Acheulean light percussion events extracted by manual annotation (as horizontal position of the black triangle) versus the corresponding principal components from 1 to 18 for the automatically extracted percussion events (as vertical position of the black triangle). Note: automatic annotation did not distinguish between light percussion and percussion events. Correlation coefficients were greater 0.95 for all curves confirms that manual and automatic annotation yield very similar results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computational biology/computational neuroscience", "neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "neuroscience/motor systems", "evolutionary biology/human evolution", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>491832, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Aldo Faisal", "Dietrich Stout", "Jan Apel", "Bruce Bradley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013718.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Figure_5_/491832", "title"=>"Figure 5", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:37:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821603"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Cumulative variability explained by principle components (from the full set of the hand configuration time series data) for toolmaking (Oldowan - circle, Acheulean - square) and control tasks (widget sorting - downward pointing triangle, box stacking - upward pointing triangle). Small object manipulation is clearly less complex than toolmaking (greater variance explained by PC 1 and above). Box stacking is much more comparable, but is still distinguished from PCs 6, 7,8 and onwards. (B) Comparison of using the full time series versus the event-triggered (percussion events) to calculate the PCA variance explained demonstrate that they are very similar. Blue circles are the corresponding variance explained of the PCA extracted from Oldowan trials (red squares Acheulean trials). (C,D) Schematic of the object manipulations performed in the control task. (C) individual nut-sized widgets were picked from a box and placed in alternating adjacent boxes. (D) Boxes (styrofoam, top open) were stacked upon each other and then unstacked again.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computational biology/computational neuroscience", "neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "neuroscience/motor systems", "evolutionary biology/human evolution", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>491969, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Aldo Faisal", "Dietrich Stout", "Jan Apel", "Bruce Bradley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013718.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Figure_6_/491969", "title"=>"Figure 6", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:38:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"14", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"16", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"5", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"3", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"10", "pdf"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"4", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"12", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"14", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"14", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"0", "unique-ip"=>"3", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"15", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"15", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"64", "full-text"=>"123", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"76", "full-text"=>"107", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[288, 576, 733, 867, 984, 1087, 1182, 1267, 1346, 1424, 1501, 1577, 1646, 1711, 1778, 1841, 1908, 1970, 2034, 2102, 2162, 2227, 2296, 2359, 2422, 2482, 2550, 2610, 2679, 2747, 2820, 2887, 2955, 3009, 3067, 3130, 3200, 3257, 3322, 3379, 3443, 3507, 3571, 3632, 3683, 3753, 3822, 3877]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[275, 532, 682, 800, 904, 1008, 1103, 1194, 1265, 1340, 1412, 1479, 1546, 1610, 1672, 1736, 1793, 1861, 1922, 1978, 2032, 2094, 2155, 2220, 2279, 2333, 2395, 2481, 2543, 2601, 2669, 2722, 2767, 2826, 2882, 2942, 3006, 3054, 3110, 3176, 3253, 3313, 3367, 3422, 3472, 3539, 3593, 3655, 3703]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[276, 544, 702, 826, 936, 1045, 1140, 1222, 1305, 1377, 1453, 1528, 1584, 1661, 1725, 1783, 1848, 1913, 1977, 2038, 2103, 2158, 2223, 2290, 2346, 2406, 2467, 2529, 2588, 2652, 2722, 2779, 2835, 2892, 2943, 2999]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[358, 640, 799, 934, 1037, 1131, 1238, 1324, 1392, 1449, 1529, 1591, 1661, 1730, 1789, 1862, 1931, 2014, 2064, 2120, 2198, 2264, 2335, 2418, 2487, 2545, 2601, 2688, 2770, 2862, 2934, 2984, 3052, 3111, 3177, 3239, 3292, 3341, 3394, 3451, 3502, 3578, 3631, 3672, 3734, 3798, 3864, 3947, 4014]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[323, 585, 727, 835, 942, 1041, 1109, 1179, 1259, 1344, 1412, 1488, 1547, 1598, 1659, 1733, 1813, 1855, 1911, 1987, 2045, 2121, 2180, 2255, 2327, 2376, 2427, 2477, 2545, 2585, 2663, 2725, 2762, 2846, 2893, 2950, 3007, 3065, 3134, 3207, 3257, 3297, 3338, 3400, 3453, 3514, 3560, 3602, 3643]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[353, 610, 749, 873, 979, 1064, 1156, 1243, 1309, 1390, 1466, 1529, 1615, 1684, 1765, 1841, 1915, 1988, 2056, 2112, 2171, 2241, 2314, 2416, 2481, 2545, 2602, 2678, 2767, 2836, 2911, 3003, 3087, 3166, 3239, 3327, 3390, 3486, 3549, 3646, 3712, 3776, 3836, 3917, 4008, 4093, 4204, 4288, 4382]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[277, 558, 715, 845, 963, 1070, 1166, 1258, 1336, 1410, 1485, 1561, 1638, 1707, 1767, 1834, 1896, 1960, 2030, 2096, 2165, 2229, 2300, 2368, 2425, 2489, 2553, 2617, 2679, 2743, 2814, 2873, 2941, 2995, 3050, 3111, 3169, 3235, 3300, 3363, 3428, 3487, 3548, 3605, 3670, 3726, 3785, 3844]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[268, 527, 681, 804, 923, 1031, 1126, 1210, 1284, 1361, 1440, 1508, 1578, 1631, 1688, 1754, 1816, 1877, 1945, 2003, 2060, 2125, 2183, 2253, 2313, 2379, 2436, 2513, 2570, 2626, 2702, 2757, 2809, 2885, 2945, 3006, 3067, 3128, 3180, 3237, 3290, 3347, 3397, 3462, 3520, 3585, 3651, 3706, 3755]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[270, 536, 692, 812, 932, 1037, 1128, 1210, 1293, 1367, 1439, 1514, 1580, 1646, 1711, 1766, 1834, 1902, 1969, 2036, 2106, 2165, 2221, 2285, 2337, 2403, 2459, 2517, 2586, 2644, 2716, 2782, 2842, 2895, 2958, 3017]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Linguistics", "average_usage"=>[384, 577, 724, 824, 897, 1004, 1081, 1124, 1179, 1241, 1331, 1435, 1525, 1599, 1630, 1724, 1785, 1864, 1925, 1986, 2031, 2074, 2152, 2229, 2304, 2398, 2502, 2586, 2664, 2722, 2788, 2869, 2943, 3019, 3125, 3187, 3271, 3348, 3386, 3453, 3504, 3567, 3612, 3653, 3695, 3743, 3788, 3829, 3890]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[323, 585, 727, 835, 942, 1041, 1109, 1179, 1259, 1344, 1412, 1488, 1547, 1598, 1659, 1733, 1813, 1855, 1911, 1987, 2045, 2121, 2180, 2255, 2327, 2376, 2427, 2477, 2545, 2585, 2663, 2725, 2762, 2846, 2893, 2950, 3007, 3065, 3134, 3207, 3257, 3297, 3338, 3400, 3453, 3514, 3560, 3602, 3643]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts