Effects of Hydrographic Variability on the Spatial, Seasonal and Diel Diving Patterns of Southern Elephant Seals in the Eastern Weddell Sea
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{"title"=>"Effects of hydrographic variability on the spatial, seasonal and diel diving patterns of Southern Elephant seals in the Eastern Weddell sea", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Biuw", "scopus_author_id"=>"23476768500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ole Anders", "last_name"=>"Nøst", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801580348"}, {"first_name"=>"Audun", "last_name"=>"Stien", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603351993"}, {"first_name"=>"Qin", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"36899201900"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian", "last_name"=>"Lydersen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006299804"}, {"first_name"=>"Kit M.", "last_name"=>"Kovacs", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401481138"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78149489128", "sgr"=>"78149489128", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"21072199", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013816", "pui"=>"359941773"}, "id"=>"d97b51bd-b314-360b-a5e7-d86ce2200bbe", "abstract"=>"Weddell Sea hydrography and circulation is driven by influx of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) at its eastern margin. Entrainment and upwelling of this high-nutrient, oxygen-depleted water mass within the Weddell Gyre also supports the mesopelagic ecosystem within the gyre and the rich benthic community along the Antarctic shelf. We used Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Satellite Relay Data Loggers (CTD-SRDLs) to examine the importance of hydrographic variability, ice cover and season on the movements and diving behavior of southern elephant seals in the eastern Weddell Sea region during their overwinter feeding trips from Bouvetøya. We developed a model describing diving depth as a function of local time of day to account for diel variation in diving behavior. Seals feeding in pelagic ice-free waters during the summer months displayed clear diel variation, with daytime dives reaching 500-1500 m and night-time targeting of the subsurface temperature and salinity maxima characteristic of CDW around 150-300 meters. This pattern was especially clear in the Weddell Cold and Warm Regimes within the gyre, occurred in the ACC, but was absent at the Dronning Maud Land shelf region where seals fed benthically. Diel variation was almost absent in pelagic feeding areas covered by winter sea ice, where seals targeted deep layers around 500-700 meters. Thus, elephant seals appear to switch between feeding strategies when moving between oceanic regimes or in response to seasonal environmental conditions. While they are on the shelf, they exploit the locally-rich benthic ecosystem, while diel patterns in pelagic waters in summer are probably a response to strong vertical migration patterns within the copepod-based pelagic food web. Behavioral flexibility that permits such switching between different feeding strategies may have important consequences regarding the potential for southern elephant seals to adapt to variability or systematic changes in their environment resulting from climate change.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-hydrographic-variability-spatial-seasonal-diel-diving-patterns-southern-elephant-seals-easte", "reader_count"=>89, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>56, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>56}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "South Africa"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821320"], "description"=>"<p>(i.e. Dnight or the linear intercept parameter respectively, if a diel pattern was or was not observed).</p><p><i>log</i> ℒ: Model log-likelihood; ΔAIC: Difference in AIC relative to model with lowest AIC value; Rel ℒ: Relative likelihood; AICw: AIC weight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["logistic", "models", "estimating", "occurrence", "overlap", "deviation", "tmax", "parameter", "was"], "article_id"=>491680, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Candidate_logistic_mixed_effects_models_estimating_the_occurrence_of_overlap_between_the_mean_1_standard_deviation_of_the_location_of_the_Tmax_and_the_mean_1_standard_error_of_the_parameter_estimate_pattern_was_or_was_not_observed_/491680", "title"=>"Candidate logistic mixed effects models estimating the occurrence of overlap between the mean 1 standard deviation of the location of the Tmax and the mean 1 standard error of the parameter estimate pattern was or was not observed).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/820867"], "description"=>"<p>Stripchart represents a 40-day period during the early stage of the post-moult trip. Black filled circles represent the maximum depths of individual dives. Vertical broken lines represent local midnight. The solid and broken red lines represent the time-weighted means and standard deviations of the depth of the sub-surface water temperature maximum, corresponding to Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) or Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW) depending on the geographic location. The temperature profile on the right corresponds to data collected during the deepest dive of this 40-day period (registered 2<sup>nd</sup> Apr).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strip-chart"], "article_id"=>491236, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diving_strip_chart_for_adult_female_southern_elephant_seal_from_Bouvet_248_ya_/491236", "title"=>"Diving strip-chart for adult female southern elephant seal from Bouvetøya.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:34:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821140"], "description"=>"<p>A) occurrence of diel dive variation (DDV) and B) overlap between dive depth and depth of the subsurface temperature maximum (<i>T<sub>max</sub></i>) across oceanic regimes (ACCR, WCR, WWR and SR), seasons (Autumn, Winter, Spring) and ice conditions (Open water or Ice) encountered by southern elephant seals from Bouvetøya during their winter post-moult migrations. The relationships in A and B are based on the top scoring among the logistic mixed effects models presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816#pone-0013816-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816#pone-0013816-t003\" target=\"_blank\">3</a> respectively. Shapes represent relative probability densities and numbers within the shapes are the number of individual seals which occupied each given combination of conditions. In <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816#pone-0013816-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 7B, ‘F’ and ‘D’</a> refers to ‘Flat’ and ‘Diel’ respectively, i.e. the absence or presence of DDV.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["probabilities", "occurrence", "diel", "dive"], "article_id"=>491502, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_probabilities_of_occurrence_of_diel_dive_variation_and_dive_depth_and_T_max_overlap_/491502", "title"=>"Predicted probabilities of occurrence of diel dive variation and dive depth and <i>T<sub>max</sub></i> overlap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:35:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/820689"], "description"=>"<p>Time-traces of males and females throughout the tracking period are illustrated in green and red tones respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antarctic", "coastline"], "article_id"=>491055, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distance_to_A_the_Antarctic_coastline_and_B_edge_of_the_pack_ice_/491055", "title"=>"Distance to A) the Antarctic coastline and B) edge of the pack ice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:33:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821370"], "description"=>"<p><i>log</i> ℒ: Model log-likelihood; ΔAIC: Difference in AIC relative to model with lowest AIC value; Rel ℒ: Relative likelihood; AICw: AIC weight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["logistic", "models", "occurrence", "diel", "dive", "seals", "instrumented", "february"], "article_id"=>491728, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Candidate_logistic_mixed_effects_models_of_the_occurrence_of_diel_dive_variation_of_southern_elephant_seals_instrumented_on_Bouvet_248_ya_in_February_2008_/491728", "title"=>"Candidate logistic mixed effects models of the occurrence of diel dive variation of southern elephant seals instrumented on Bouvetøya in February 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:37:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/820986"], "description"=>"<p>Strip charts show females migrating between Bouvetøya and: Dronning Maud Land (top two charts), the Background colors indicate which ocean regime a seal is in on a given day. Red and blue filled circles represent the fitted shallow and deep asymptotes of the four-parameter logistic for days when there was strong support for the existence of a diel pattern, while the smaller black circles represent the fitted intercept in the linear intercept-only models for days when support for a diel pattern was weak. Vertical error bars associated with these points represent standard errors of the fitted parameters. The solid and broken red lines represent the average and standard deviation of the depth of the subsurface temperature maximum (<i>T<sub>max</sub></i>) of the Warm Deep Water. The black region at the top of each strip-chart represents relative ice concentration while black regions within the strip-charts represent the seafloor.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["time-depth", "strip-charts"], "article_id"=>491352, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_time_depth_strip_charts_from_five_female_southern_elephant_seals_/491352", "title"=>"Example time-depth strip-charts from five female southern elephant seals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/820319"], "description"=>"<p>A) Tracks of 19 southern elephant seals instrumented at Bouvetøya (grey diamond) covering the period February -November 2008. Green tones  =  males, red tones  =  females. B) Positions of 8749 CTD profiles obtained throughout the tracking period. The color represents the temperature at the subsurface maximum (<i>T<sub>max</sub></i>). The dark blue contour line represents the 0.8°C isotherm used to delineate between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Regime (ACCR), Weddell Cold Regime (WCR) and Weddell Warm Regime (WWR). The delineation between the WWR and the Dronning Maud Land Shelf regime (SR) was based on the location of the Antarctic Slope front (ASF).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tracks", "seal-derived", "subsurface"], "article_id"=>490681, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bouvet_248_ya_elephant_seal_tracks_and_seal_derived_subsurface_temperature_maximum_/490681", "title"=>"Bouvetøya elephant seal tracks and seal-derived subsurface temperature maximum.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:31:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/821402"], "description"=>"<p>Acronyms used in the text to denote technical terms, ocean regimes, water masses, hydrographic features and model parameters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["denote", "hydrographic"], "article_id"=>491770, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Acronyms_used_in_the_text_to_denote_technical_terms_ocean_regimes_water_masses_hydrographic_features_and_model_parameters_/491770", "title"=>"Acronyms used in the text to denote technical terms, ocean regimes, water masses, hydrographic features and model parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/820452"], "description"=>"<p>The vertical line represents a distance of 150 km which was used to delineate between the Weddell Warm Regime (WWR) and the Dronning Maud Land Shelf Regime (SR). This distance was chosen based on the location of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) which is associated with the sharp deepening of the (<i>T<sub>max</sub></i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subsurface", "dronning", "maud", "1000-m"], "article_id"=>490811, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Depth_of_subsurface_temperature_maximum_T_max_vs_distance_from_Dronning_Maud_Land_Shelf_1000_m_contour_/490811", "title"=>"Depth of subsurface temperature maximum (<i>T<sub>max</sub></i>) vs. distance from Dronning Maud Land Shelf 1000-m contour.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:32:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/820541"], "description"=>"<p>The strip-charts in the left column represent time vs depth (cf. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816#pone-0013816-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 6</a>). The top figure shows the raw data for maximum depth reached during individual dives throughout the sampling record of one seal and subsequent strip-charts illustrate the output of applying the successive procedures indicated in italics in the middle column. The inset (top right-hand) illustrates the parameters of the four-parameter logistic model of diving depth as a function of time of day, as defined in Eq. 1. The <i>λ</i> symbol indicates that the maximum slope of the curve is determined by the <i>λ</i> parameter. The two squares (bottom right-hand) represent the two series of final logistic mixed effects models testing for relationships between dive patterns and environmental covariates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flow-chart", "analytical"], "article_id"=>490908, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Marine Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Martin Biuw", "Ole Anders Nøst", "Audun Stien", "Qin Zhou", "Christian Lydersen", "Kit M. Kovacs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013816.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_flow_chart_of_the_analytical_approach_/490908", "title"=>"Schematic flow-chart of the analytical approach.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:32:42"}

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