Analysing the Large Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in the Icelandic Population Aged 25-74 between the Years 1981 and 2006
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{"title"=>"Analysing the large decline in coronary heart disease mortality in the icelandic population aged 25-74 between the years 1981 and 2006", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Thor", "last_name"=>"Aspelund", "scopus_author_id"=>"8703984700"}, {"first_name"=>"Vilmundur", "last_name"=>"Gudnason", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003353432"}, {"first_name"=>"Bergrun Tinna", "last_name"=>"Magnusdottir", "scopus_author_id"=>"24537257100"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl", "last_name"=>"Andersen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402451635"}, {"first_name"=>"Gunnar", "last_name"=>"Sigurdsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005332253"}, {"first_name"=>"Bolli", "last_name"=>"Thorsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"15737479400"}, {"first_name"=>"Laufey", "last_name"=>"Steingrimsdottir", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601960781"}, {"first_name"=>"Julia", "last_name"=>"Critchley", "scopus_author_id"=>"21644958400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathleen", "last_name"=>"Bennett", "scopus_author_id"=>"23079596400"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"O'Flaherty", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701635334"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Capewell", "scopus_author_id"=>"56962711900"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"78649746022", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013957", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"360084600", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21103050", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78649746022"}, "id"=>"4a1d2529-a737-3c63-a542-d7a0eaf106d5", "abstract"=>"Background\\nCoronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates have been decreasing in Iceland since the 1980s. We examined how much of the decrease between 1981 and 2006 could be attributed to medical and surgical treatments and how much to changes in cardiovascular risk factors.\\n\\nMethodology\\nThe previously validated IMPACT CHD mortality model was applied to the Icelandic population. The data sources were official statistics, national quality registers, published trials and meta-analyses, clinical audits and a series of national population surveys.\\n\\nPrincipal Findings\\nBetween 1981 and 2006, CHD mortality rates in Iceland decreased by 80% in men and women aged 25 to 74 years, which resulted in 295 fewer deaths in 2006 than if the 1981 rates had persisted. Incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) decreased by 66% and resulted in some 500 fewer incident MI cases per year, which is a major determinant of possible deaths from MI. Based on the IMPACT model approximately 73% (lower and upper bound estimates: 54%–93%) of the mortality decrease was attributable to risk factor reductions: cholesterol 32%; smoking 22%; systolic blood pressure 22%, and physical inactivity 5% with adverse trends for diabetes (−5%), and obesity (−4%). Approximately 25% (lower and upper bound estimates: 8%–40%) of the mortality decrease was attributable to treatments in individuals: secondary prevention 8%; heart failure treatments 6%; acute coronary syndrome treatments 5%; revascularisation 3%; hypertension treatments 2%, and statins 0.5%.\\n\\nConclusions\\nAlmost three quarters of the large CHD mortality decrease in Iceland between 1981 and 2006 was attributable to reductions in major cardiovascular risk factors in the population. These findings emphasize the value of a comprehensive prevention strategy that promotes tobacco control and a healthier diet to reduce incidence of MI and highlights the potential importance of effective, evidence based medical treatments.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/analysing-large-decline-coronary-heart-disease-mortality-icelandic-population-aged-2574-between-year", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>31, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>31}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>1, "Iceland"=>3, "Malta"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/818867"], "description"=>"<p>Population numbers and CHD deaths in Iceland 1981 and 2006 with estimated fall in CHD deaths in 2006 if 1981 rates persisted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["numbers", "chd", "deaths", "iceland", "1981", "2006", "rates"], "article_id"=>489221, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Thor Aspelund", "Vilmundur Gudnason", "Bergrun Tinna Magnusdottir", "Karl Andersen", "Gunnar Sigurdsson", "Bolli Thorsson", "Laufey Steingrimsdottir", "Julia Critchley", "Kathleen Bennett", "Martin O'Flaherty", "Simon Capewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013957.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Population_numbers_and_CHD_deaths_in_Iceland_1981_and_2006_with_estimated_fall_in_CHD_deaths_in_2006_if_1981_rates_persisted_/489221", "title"=>"Population numbers and CHD deaths in Iceland 1981 and 2006 with estimated fall in CHD deaths in 2006 if 1981 rates persisted.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-12 02:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/818740"], "description"=>"<p>The rates have been declining along the superimposed trend lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "mi", "incidence", "iceland", "1981", "2006", "men", "women"], "article_id"=>489094, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Thor Aspelund", "Vilmundur Gudnason", "Bergrun Tinna Magnusdottir", "Karl Andersen", "Gunnar Sigurdsson", "Bolli Thorsson", "Laufey Steingrimsdottir", "Julia Critchley", "Kathleen Bennett", "Martin O'Flaherty", "Simon Capewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013957.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CHD_mortality_rates_and_MI_incidence_rates_in_Iceland_between_1981_and_2006_for_men_and_women_of_age_25_8211_74_/489094", "title"=>"CHD mortality rates and MI incidence rates in Iceland between 1981 and 2006 for men and women of age 25–74.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-12 02:31:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408110"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates have been decreasing in Iceland since the 1980s. We examined how much of the decrease between 1981 and 2006 could be attributed to medical and surgical treatments and how much to changes in cardiovascular risk factors.</p><h3>Methodology</h3><p>The previously validated IMPACT CHD mortality model was applied to the Icelandic population. The data sources were official statistics, national quality registers, published trials and meta-analyses, clinical audits and a series of national population surveys.</p><h3>Principal Findings</h3><p>Between 1981 and 2006, CHD mortality rates in Iceland decreased by 80% in men and women aged 25 to 74 years, which resulted in 295 fewer deaths in 2006 than if the 1981 rates had persisted. Incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) decreased by 66% and resulted in some 500 fewer incident MI cases per year, which is a major determinant of possible deaths from MI. Based on the IMPACT model approximately 73% (lower and upper bound estimates: 54%–93%) of the mortality decrease was attributable to risk factor reductions: cholesterol 32%; smoking 22%; systolic blood pressure 22%, and physical inactivity 5% with adverse trends for diabetes (−5%), and obesity (−4%). Approximately 25% (lower and upper bound estimates: 8%–40%) of the mortality decrease was attributable to treatments in individuals: secondary prevention 8%; heart failure treatments 6%; acute coronary syndrome treatments 5%; revascularisation 3%; hypertension treatments 2%, and statins 0.5%.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Almost three quarters of the large CHD mortality decrease in Iceland between 1981 and 2006 was attributable to reductions in major cardiovascular risk factors in the population. These findings emphasize the value of a comprehensive prevention strategy that promotes tobacco control and a healthier diet to reduce incidence of MI and highlights the potential importance of effective, evidence based medical treatments.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analysing", "coronary", "icelandic", "aged", "25-74", "years", "1981", "2006"], "article_id"=>140607, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Thor Aspelund", "Vilmundur Gudnason", "Bergrun Tinna Magnusdottir", "Karl Andersen", "Gunnar Sigurdsson", "Bolli Thorsson", "Laufey Steingrimsdottir", "Julia Critchley", "Kathleen Bennett", "Martin O'Flaherty", "Simon Capewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013957", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Analysing_the_Large_Decline_in_Coronary_Heart_Disease_Mortality_in_the_Icelandic_Population_Aged_25_74_between_the_Years_1981_and_2006/140607", "title"=>"Analysing the Large Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in the Icelandic Population Aged 25-74 between the Years 1981 and 2006", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-12 00:10:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/818905"], "description"=>"<p>Main Data Sources for the Parameters Used in the Iceland IMPACT Model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sources", "parameters", "iceland"], "article_id"=>489266, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Thor Aspelund", "Vilmundur Gudnason", "Bergrun Tinna Magnusdottir", "Karl Andersen", "Gunnar Sigurdsson", "Bolli Thorsson", "Laufey Steingrimsdottir", "Julia Critchley", "Kathleen Bennett", "Martin O'Flaherty", "Simon Capewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013957.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Main_Data_Sources_for_the_Parameters_Used_in_the_Iceland_IMPACT_Model_/489266", "title"=>"Main Data Sources for the Parameters Used in the Iceland IMPACT Model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-12 02:34:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/818955"], "description"=>"<p>Deaths from coronary heart disease prevented or postponed as a result of changes in population risk factors in Iceland 1981 – 2006.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coronary", "prevented", "postponed", "changes", "factors", "iceland", "1981"], "article_id"=>489306, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Thor Aspelund", "Vilmundur Gudnason", "Bergrun Tinna Magnusdottir", "Karl Andersen", "Gunnar Sigurdsson", "Bolli Thorsson", "Laufey Steingrimsdottir", "Julia Critchley", "Kathleen Bennett", "Martin O'Flaherty", "Simon Capewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013957.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Deaths_from_coronary_heart_disease_prevented_or_postponed_as_a_result_of_changes_in_population_risk_factors_in_Iceland_1981_8211_2006_/489306", "title"=>"Deaths from coronary heart disease prevented or postponed as a result of changes in population risk factors in Iceland 1981 – 2006.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-12 02:35:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/818502"], "description"=>"<p><i>(diamonds  =  best estimate, bars maximum and minimum estimate).</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparing", "observed", "falls"], "article_id"=>488859, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Thor Aspelund", "Vilmundur Gudnason", "Bergrun Tinna Magnusdottir", "Karl Andersen", "Gunnar Sigurdsson", "Bolli Thorsson", "Laufey Steingrimsdottir", "Julia Critchley", "Kathleen Bennett", "Martin O'Flaherty", "Simon Capewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013957.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_fit_comparing_observed_and_estimated_mortality_falls_in_each_age_group_/488859", "title"=>"Model fit comparing observed and estimated mortality falls in each age group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-12 02:27:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/818824"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated deaths prevented or postponed by medical or surgical treatments in Iceland 2006.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "prevented", "postponed", "surgical", "treatments", "iceland"], "article_id"=>489181, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Thor Aspelund", "Vilmundur Gudnason", "Bergrun Tinna Magnusdottir", "Karl Andersen", "Gunnar Sigurdsson", "Bolli Thorsson", "Laufey Steingrimsdottir", "Julia Critchley", "Kathleen Bennett", "Martin O'Flaherty", "Simon Capewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013957.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_deaths_prevented_or_postponed_by_medical_or_surgical_treatments_in_Iceland_2006_/489181", "title"=>"Estimated deaths prevented or postponed by medical or surgical treatments in Iceland 2006.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-12 02:33:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/818603"], "description"=>"<p>The bars show the observed deaths in each age group, with diamonds being the best model estimate, and vertical lines the extreme minimum and maximum estimates in the sensitivity analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proportional", "contributions", "treatments", "changes", "chd", "iceland", "1981"], "article_id"=>488959, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Thor Aspelund", "Vilmundur Gudnason", "Bergrun Tinna Magnusdottir", "Karl Andersen", "Gunnar Sigurdsson", "Bolli Thorsson", "Laufey Steingrimsdottir", "Julia Critchley", "Kathleen Bennett", "Martin O'Flaherty", "Simon Capewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013957.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_proportional_contributions_of_specific_risk_factor_treatments_and_risk_factor_changes_to_the_overall_decrease_in_CHD_mortality_in_Iceland_between_1981_and_2002_/488959", "title"=>"The proportional contributions of specific risk factor treatments and risk factor changes to the overall decrease in CHD mortality in Iceland between 1981 and 2002.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-12 02:29:19"}

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