Zipf's Law Leads to Heaps' Law: Analyzing Their Relation in Finite-Size Systems
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{"title"=>"Zipf's law leads to heaps' law: Analyzing their relation in finite-size systems", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Linyuan", "last_name"=>"Lü", "scopus_author_id"=>"55474680600"}, {"first_name"=>"Zi Ke", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"25925616500"}, {"first_name"=>"Tao", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"56449913600"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"360113702", "sgr"=>"78649864468", "pmid"=>"21152034", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78649864468", "isbn"=>"0011-3891", "arxiv"=>"1002.3861", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0014139", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"d685494f-300c-38c4-bfee-925b191270b7", "abstract"=>"Background: Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation. Methodology/Principal Findings: We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents. Conclusions/Significance: The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems, for example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/zipfs-law-leads-heaps-law-analyzing-relation-finitesize-systems", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>18, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Engineering"=>2, "Mathematics"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>15, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>15}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>18}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "China"=>2, "Taiwan"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815132"], "description"=>"<p>The red, black and blue line correspond to the cases of , and . The system sizes (i.e., the total number of word occurrences), from left to right, are , and . Fitting exponent is obtained by the <i>least square method</i>. The fitting lines and numerical results almost completely overlap.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["numerical"], "article_id"=>485507, "categories"=>["Physics"], "users"=>["Linyuan Lü", "Zi-Ke Zhang", "Tao Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_vs_according_to_the_numerical_results_of_Eq_6_/485507", "title"=>"vs. according to the numerical results of Eq. 6.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-02 01:31:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/814754"], "description"=>"<p>The solid curve represents the asymptotic solution shown in Eq. 7, the dash curve is the numerical result based on Eq. 6, and the circles denote the result from the stochastic model. For the numerical result and the result of the stochastic model, the total number of word occurrences is fixed as . The Heaps' exponents for the numerical results of Eq. 6 and the simulation results of the stochastic model are obtained by using the <i>least square method</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exponent"], "article_id"=>485123, "categories"=>["Physics"], "users"=>["Linyuan Lü", "Zi-Ke Zhang", "Tao Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_the_Heaps_exponent_and_Zipf_s_exponent_/485123", "title"=>"Relationship between the Heaps' exponent and Zipf's exponent .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-02 01:25:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815050"], "description"=>"<p>The left and right plots are for the words in “La Divina Commedia” and the keywords in PNAS. The blue dash lines and red solid lines present the results of Eq. 6 and Eq. 11, respectively. In accordance with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone-0014139-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone-0014139-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>, the values of the parameter are given as 1.117 and 0.893, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["empirical"], "article_id"=>485423, "categories"=>["Physics"], "users"=>["Linyuan Lü", "Zi-Ke Zhang", "Tao Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Direct_comparison_between_the_empirical_data_and_Eq_6_as_well_as_its_improved_version_/485423", "title"=>"Direct comparison between the empirical data and <b>Eq. 6</b> as well as its improved version.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-02 01:30:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815174"], "description"=>"<p> is the total number of elements, is the total number of distinct elements, is the Zipf's exponent obtained by the <i>maximum likelihood estimation</i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone.0014139-Clauset1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone.0014139-Goldstein1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>, is the asymptotic solution of the Heaps' exponent as shown in Eq. 7, is the numerical value of the Heaps' exponent given and as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone-0014139-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a>, and is the empirical result of the Heaps' exponent obtained by the <i>least square method</i>. The effective number of the 34th data set is only two digits since the size of this data set is very small. Except the 4th data set, in all other 34 real data sets, the numerical results based on Eq. 6 outperform the asymptotic solution shown in Eq. 7. Detailed description of these data sets can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#s4\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Materials and Methods</b></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "physics/condensed matter", "physics/interdisciplinary physics"], "article_id"=>485550, "categories"=>["Physics"], "users"=>["Linyuan Lü", "Zi-Ke Zhang", "Tao Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Empirical_statistics_and_analysis_results_of_real_data_sets_/485550", "title"=>"Empirical statistics and analysis results of real data sets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-02 01:32:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/814888"], "description"=>"<p>Heaps' exponent as a function of .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exponent"], "article_id"=>485259, "categories"=>["Physics"], "users"=>["Linyuan Lü", "Zi-Ke Zhang", "Tao Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heaps_exponent_as_a_function_of_/485259", "title"=>"Heaps' exponent as a function of .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-02 01:27:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/814973"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Words in Dante Alghieri's great book “La Divina Commedia” in Italian <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone.0014139-Carpena1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a> where is the frequency of the word ranked and is the number of distinct words. (b) Keywords of articles published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone.0014139-Zhang1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a> where is the frequency of the keyword ranked and is the number of distinct keywords; (c) Confirmed cases of the novel virus influenza A (H1N1) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone.0014139-Han1\" target=\"_blank\">[45]</a> where is the number of confirmed cases of the country ranked and is the number of infected country in the presence of confirmed cases over the world; (d) PNAS articles having been cited at least once from 1915 to 2009 where is the number of citations of the article ranked and is the number of distinct articles in the presence of citations to PNAS. In (c), the data set is small and thus the effective number is only two digits. The fittings in (c1) and (c2) only cover the area marked by blue. In (d1), the deviation from a power law is observed in the head and tail, and thus the fitting only covers the blue area. The Zipf's (power-law) exponents and Heaps' exponents are obtained by using the <i>maximum likelihood estimation </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone.0014139-Clauset1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone.0014139-Goldstein1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a> and <i>least square method</i>, respectively. Statistics of these data sets can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone-0014139-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> (the data set numbers of (a), (b), (c) and (d) are 9, 10, 34 and 35 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#pone-0014139-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>) with detailed description in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139#s4\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Materials and Methods</b></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "physics/condensed matter", "physics/interdisciplinary physics"], "article_id"=>485337, "categories"=>["Physics"], "users"=>["Linyuan Lü", "Zi-Ke Zhang", "Tao Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>118, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Zipf_s_law_and_Heaps_law_in_four_example_systems_/485337", "title"=>"Zipf's law and Heaps' law in four example systems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-02 01:28:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/814823"], "description"=>"<p>The Zipf's exponent is fixed as .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exponent"], "article_id"=>485194, "categories"=>["Physics"], "users"=>["Linyuan Lü", "Zi-Ke Zhang", "Tao Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_system_size_on_the_Heaps_exponent_/485194", "title"=>"Effect of system size on the Heaps' exponent .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-02 01:26:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/406343", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/406371", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/406407", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/406445", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/406504", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/406564"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from the Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems. For example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leads", "analyzing", "finite-size", "systems"], "article_id"=>140292, "categories"=>["Physics"], "users"=>["Linyuan Lü", "Zi-Ke Zhang", "Tao Zhou"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014139.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Zipf_s_Law_Leads_to_Heaps_Law_Analyzing_Their_Relation_in_Finite_Size_Systems/140292", "title"=>"Zipf's Law Leads to Heaps' Law: Analyzing Their Relation in Finite-Size Systems", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-12-02 00:04:52"}

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