Intracellular Uptake: A Possible Mechanism for Silver Engineered Nanoparticle Toxicity to a Freshwater Alga Ochromonas danica
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{"title"=>"Intracellular uptake: A possible mechanism for silver engineered nanoparticle toxicity to a freshwater alga Ochromonas danica", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ai Jun", "last_name"=>"Miao", "scopus_author_id"=>"36598686500"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhiping", "last_name"=>"Luo", "scopus_author_id"=>"35311567400"}, {"first_name"=>"Chi Shuo", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35291349600"}, {"first_name"=>"Wei Chun", "last_name"=>"Chin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202546847"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter H.", "last_name"=>"Santschi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006327962"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonietta", "last_name"=>"Quigg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602346370"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78650986714", "pui"=>"361059722", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0015196", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"78650986714", "pmid"=>"21203552"}, "id"=>"3fe5961c-5945-3ccc-b63a-306d7be7afe8", "abstract"=>"The behavior and toxicity of silver engineered nanoparticles (Ag-ENs) to the mixotrophic freshwater alga Ochromonas danica were examined in the present study to determine whether any other mechanisms are involved in their algal toxicity besides Ag(+) liberation outside the cells. Despite their good dispersability, the Ag-ENs were found to continuously aggregate and dissolve rapidly. When the initial nanoparticle concentration was lower than 10 µM, the total dissolved Ag(+) concentration ([Ag(+)](T)) in the suspending media reached its maximum after 1 d and then decreased suggesting that Ag(+) release might be limited by the nanoparticle surface area under these conditions. Furthermore, Ag-EN dissolution extent remarkably increased in the presence of glutathione. In the Ag-EN toxicity experiment, glutathione was also used to eliminate the indirect effects of Ag(+) that was released. However, remarkable toxicity was still observed although the free Ag(+) concentration in the media was orders of magnitude lower than the non-observed effect concentration of Ag(+) itself. Such inhibitive effects were mitigated when more glutathione was added, but could never be completely eliminated. Most importantly, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Ag-ENs can be taken in and accumulated inside the algal cells, where they exerted their toxic effects. Therefore, nanoparticle internalization may be an alternative pathway through which algal growth can be influenced.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/intracellular-uptake-possible-mechanism-silver-engineered-nanoparticle-toxicity-freshwater-alga-ochr", "reader_count"=>86, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>25, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>11}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>25}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Philippines"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811773"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean ± standard deviation (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ag-en", "ag-ens", "fractions", "modified", "dy-v"], "article_id"=>482139, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Plant Biology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ai-Jun Miao", "Zhiping Luo", "Chi-Shuo Chen", "Wei-Chun Chin", "Peter H. Santschi", "Antonietta Quigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_size_distribution_to_the_initial_Ag_EN_concentration_of_27_8_181_M_Ag_ENs_in_different_size_fractions_gt_200_nm_35_8211_200_nm_1_8211_35_nm_lt_1_nm_during_a_7_d_period_in_the_modified_DY_V_medium_with_the_addition_of_0_16_7_83_3_and_416_3_181_/482139", "title"=>"Normalized size distribution (to the initial Ag-EN concentration) of 27.8 µM Ag-ENs in different size fractions (>200 nm, 35–200 nm, 1–35 nm, <1 nm) during a 7 d period in the modified DY-V medium with the addition of 0, 16.7, 83.3, and 416.3 µM GSH, respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-22 00:35:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404590", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404629", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404659", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404679", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404703", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404755", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404808"], "description"=>"<div><p>The behavior and toxicity of silver engineered nanoparticles (Ag-ENs) to the mixotrophic freshwater alga <em>Ochromonas danica</em> were examined in the present study to determine whether any other mechanisms are involved in their algal toxicity besides Ag<sup>+</sup> liberation outside the cells. Despite their good dispersability, the Ag-ENs were found to continuously aggregate and dissolve rapidly. When the initial nanoparticle concentration was lower than 10 µM, the total dissolved Ag<sup>+</sup> concentration ([Ag<sup>+</sup>]<sub>T</sub>) in the suspending media reached its maximum after 1 d and then decreased suggesting that Ag<sup>+</sup> release might be limited by the nanoparticle surface area under these conditions. Furthermore, Ag-EN dissolution extent remarkably increased in the presence of glutathione. In the Ag-EN toxicity experiment, glutathione was also used to eliminate the indirect effects of Ag<sup>+</sup> that was released. However, remarkable toxicity was still observed although the free Ag<sup>+</sup> concentration in the media was orders of magnitude lower than the non-observed effect concentration of Ag<sup>+</sup> itself. Such inhibitive effects were mitigated when more glutathione was added, but could never be completely eliminated. Most importantly, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Ag-ENs can be taken in and accumulated inside the algal cells, where they exerted their toxic effects. Therefore, nanoparticle internalization may be an alternative pathway through which algal growth can be influenced.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intracellular", "engineered", "nanoparticle", "toxicity", "freshwater", "alga"], "article_id"=>139958, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biochemistry", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ai-Jun Miao", "Zhiping Luo", "Chi-Shuo Chen", "Wei-Chun Chin", "Peter H. Santschi", "Antonietta Quigg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Intracellular_Uptake_A_Possible_Mechanism_for_Silver_Engineered_Nanoparticle_Toxicity_to_a_Freshwater_Alga_Ochromonas_danica_/139958", "title"=>"Intracellular Uptake: A Possible Mechanism for Silver Engineered Nanoparticle Toxicity to a Freshwater Alga <em>Ochromonas danica</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-12-22 02:45:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811936"], "description"=>"<p>Arrows indicates the locations of Ag-ENs inside the cells, which was further confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The letter ‘P’ represents the plasma membrane of the cell, ‘V’ means vacuole and ‘C’ is chloroplast.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electron", "microscope", "z-contrast", "dark-field", "scanning", "images", "ag-en"], "article_id"=>482296, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Plant Biology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ai-Jun Miao", "Zhiping Luo", "Chi-Shuo Chen", "Wei-Chun Chin", "Peter H. Santschi", "Antonietta Quigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_transmission_electron_microscope_a_and_Z_contrast_dark_field_scanning_transmission_electron_microscope_b_images_of_a_single_Ochromonas_danica_cell_in_the_Ag_EN_addition_92_7_M_treatment_/482296", "title"=>"The transmission electron microscope (a) and Z-contrast dark-field scanning transmission electron microscope (b) images of a single <i>Ochromonas danica</i> cell in the Ag-EN addition (92.7 µM) treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-22 00:38:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811694"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean ± standard deviation (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ag-en", "ag-ens", "fractions", "200", "modified", "dy-v"], "article_id"=>482058, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Plant Biology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ai-Jun Miao", "Zhiping Luo", "Chi-Shuo Chen", "Wei-Chun Chin", "Peter H. Santschi", "Antonietta Quigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_size_distribution_to_the_initial_Ag_EN_concentration_of_1_85_9_27_27_8_and_92_7_181_M_Ag_ENs_in_different_size_fractions_gt_200_nm_35_8211_200_nm_1_8211_35_nm_lt_1_nm_during_a_7_d_period_in_the_modified_DY_V_medium_/482058", "title"=>"Normalized size distribution (to the initial Ag-EN concentration) of 1.85, 9.27, 27.8, and 92.7 µM Ag-ENs in different size fractions (> 200 nm, 35–200 nm, 1–35 nm, <1 nm) during a 7 d period in the modified DY-V medium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-22 00:34:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811640"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean ± standard deviation (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ag-en", "ag-ens", "fractions", "200", "20", "modified", "dy-v"], "article_id"=>481995, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Plant Biology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ai-Jun Miao", "Zhiping Luo", "Chi-Shuo Chen", "Wei-Chun Chin", "Peter H. Santschi", "Antonietta Quigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_size_distribution_to_the_initial_Ag_EN_concentration_of_27_8_181_M_Ag_ENs_in_different_size_fractions_gt_200_nm_35_8211_200_nm_1_8211_35_nm_lt_1_nm_during_a_20_d_period_in_the_modified_DY_V_medium_/481995", "title"=>"Normalized size distribution (to the initial Ag-EN concentration) of 27.8 µM Ag-ENs in different size fractions (> 200 nm, 35–200 nm, 1–35 nm, <1 nm) during a 20 d period in the modified DY-V medium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-22 00:33:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811860"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean ± standard deviation (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes", "cell-specific", "treatments", "concentrations", "ag-ens", "triangle", "gsh", "applied", "ag-en"], "article_id"=>482218, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Plant Biology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ai-Jun Miao", "Zhiping Luo", "Chi-Shuo Chen", "Wei-Chun Chin", "Peter H. Santschi", "Antonietta Quigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015196.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_changes_of_the_cell_specific_growth_rate_in_the_treatments_with_different_free_Ag_concentrations_Ag_F_M_to_that_in_the_control_in_the_experiment_a_where_different_concentrations_of_Ag_ENs_27_8_92_7_139_1_185_4_and_278_1_181_M_triangle_symbol_and/482218", "title"=>"Relative changes of the cell-specific growth rate (µ) in the treatments with different free Ag<sup>+</sup> concentrations ([Ag<sup>+</sup>]<sub>F</sub>, M) to that in the control in the experiment (a) where different concentrations of Ag-ENs (27.8, 92.7, 139.1, 185.4, and 278.1 µM; triangle symbol) and Ag<sup>+</sup> (55.4, 74.2, 81.9, 83.4, and 92.7 µM; circle symbol) were added and (b) where different concentrations of GSH (triangle - 83.3 µM, circle - 249.8 µM, diamond - 416.3 µM) were applied for the four different Ag-EN concentration treatments (0, 139.1, 185.4, and 278.1 µM), respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-22 00:36:58"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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