Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children
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{"title"=>"Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yasuyuki", "last_name"=>"Taki", "scopus_author_id"=>"35729609800"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiroshi", "last_name"=>"Hashizume", "scopus_author_id"=>"35728592500"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuko", "last_name"=>"Sassa", "scopus_author_id"=>"8386305200"}, {"first_name"=>"Hikaru", "last_name"=>"Takeuchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35424418300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michiko", "last_name"=>"Asano", "scopus_author_id"=>"56050779000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kohei", "last_name"=>"Asano", "scopus_author_id"=>"36730751100"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryuta", "last_name"=>"Kawashima", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005986241"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"360158284", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0015213", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78650140971", "pmid"=>"21170334", "sgr"=>"78650140971"}, "id"=>"ca103ed4-e003-3e45-9c27-a3e11d93ee8a", "abstract"=>"Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/breakfast-staple-types-affect-brain-gray-matter-volume-cognitive-function-healthy-children", "reader_count"=>103, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Engineering"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>8, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>23, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>23}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>7}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>8}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/814151"], "description"=>"<p>Rice group: Subjects who habitually ate boiled white rice for breakfast.</p><p>Both group: Subjects who habitually ate both boiled white rice and white bread for breakfast.</p><p>Bread group: Subjects who habitually ate white bread for breakfast.</p>a<p>: Significance levels were evaluated with the Scheffe test if the analysis of variance was significant.</p>b<p>: Comparison between the rice group and the both group.</p>c<p>: Comparison between the rice group and the bread group.</p>d<p>: Comparison between the both group and the bread group.</p>e<p>Socioeconomic status is divided as follows; annual income below 2 million yen (∼20,000 US dollars), 1; 2–4 million yen, 2; 4–6 million yen, 3; 6–8 million yen, 4; 8 –10 million yen, 5; 10–12 million yen, 6; ≥12 million yen, 7.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["public health and epidemiology", "Mental health", "physiology", "neuroscience", "pediatrics and child health", "neurological disorders", "radiology and medical imaging"], "article_id"=>484512, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Yasuyuki Taki", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Yuko Sassa", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Michiko Asano", "Kohei Asano", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015213.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_Rice_Group_the_Both_Group_and_the_Bread_Group_/484512", "title"=>"Characteristics of the Rice Group, the Both Group, and the Bread Group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:58:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/813951"], "description"=>"<p>Details are the same as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0015213#pone-0015213-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "larger", "volumes", "compared", "adjusting", "socioeconomic", "having", "dishes", "eaten"], "article_id"=>484304, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Yasuyuki Taki", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Yuko Sassa", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Michiko Asano", "Kohei Asano", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015213.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gray_matter_regions_with_significantly_larger_volumes_in_the_bread_group_as_compared_with_in_the_rice_group_after_adjusting_for_age_gender_socioeconomic_status_average_weekly_frequency_of_having_breakfast_and_number_of_side_dishes_eaten_for_breakfast_/484304", "title"=>"Gray matter regions with significantly larger volumes in the bread group as compared with in the rice group after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:57:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/814058"], "description"=>"<p>Color scales indicate <i>t</i>-scores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "larger", "volumes", "adjusting", "socioeconomic", "having", "dishes", "eaten"], "article_id"=>484418, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Yasuyuki Taki", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Yuko Sassa", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Michiko Asano", "Kohei Asano", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015213.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_White_matter_regions_with_significantly_larger_volumes_in_the_bread_vs_the_rice_group_after_adjusting_for_age_gender_socioeconomic_status_average_weekly_frequency_of_having_breakfast_and_number_of_side_dishes_eaten_for_breakfast_/484418", "title"=>"White matter regions with significantly larger volumes in the bread vs. the rice group after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:58:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/813754"], "description"=>"<p>The horizontal bars indicate gray matter mean ratio value in each group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["public health and epidemiology", "Mental health", "physiology", "neuroscience", "pediatrics and child health", "neurological disorders", "radiology and medical imaging"], "article_id"=>484100, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Yasuyuki Taki", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Yuko Sassa", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Michiko Asano", "Kohei Asano", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015213.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gray_matter_ratio_of_the_rice_group_and_the_bread_group_/484100", "title"=>"Gray matter ratio of the rice group and the bread group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:56:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/814182"], "description"=>"a<p>: Significance levels were evaluated with the Scheffe test when the analysis of variance was significant.</p>b<p>: Comparison between the rice group and the bread group.</p><p>n.s.: not significant.</p><p>GMR: gray matter ratio.</p><p>WMR: white matter ratio.</p><p>VCI: Verbal Comprehension Index.</p><p>POI: Perceptual Organization Index.</p><p>WMI: Working Memory Index.</p><p>PSI: Processing Speed Index.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quotient"], "article_id"=>484553, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Yasuyuki Taki", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Yuko Sassa", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Michiko Asano", "Kohei Asano", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015213.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GMR_and_Intelligence_Quotient_IQ_of_the_Rice_Group_the_Both_Group_and_the_Bread_Group_/484553", "title"=>"GMR and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of the Rice Group, the Both Group, and the Bread Group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:59:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/813853"], "description"=>"<p>Significant regions are superimposed onto a brain surface of a SPM template brain, as well as onto axial images of the mean normalized gray matter segments derived from all the subjects. The left side of the image represents the left side of the brain. Color scales indicate the t-score. The number at the bottom of the right side of each image indicates the value of the z-axis in the Talairach stereotaxic space.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "larger", "volumes", "compared", "adjusting", "socioeconomic", "dishes", "eaten"], "article_id"=>484207, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Yasuyuki Taki", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Yuko Sassa", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Michiko Asano", "Kohei Asano", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015213.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gray_matter_regions_with_significantly_larger_volumes_in_the_rice_group_as_compared_with_the_bread_group_after_adjusting_for_age_gender_socioeconomic_status_average_weekly_frequency_of_eating_breakfast_and_number_of_side_dishes_eaten_for_breakfast_/484207", "title"=>"Gray matter regions with significantly larger volumes in the rice group as compared with the bread group after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of eating breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:57:17"}

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Relative Metric

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