Aversive Reinforcement Improves Visual Discrimination Learning in Free-Flying Honeybees
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{"title"=>"Aversive reinforcement improves visual discrimination learning in free-flying honeybees", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Avargue", "last_name"=>"Aurorès-Weber", "scopus_author_id"=>"35721565900"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria G.", "last_name"=>"de Brito Sanchez", "scopus_author_id"=>"10241914600"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Giurfa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003298526"}, {"first_name"=>"Adrian G.", "last_name"=>"Dyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101810697"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78149428039", "sgr"=>"78149428039", "pui"=>"359931118", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"20976170", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0015370"}, "id"=>"fc2c204b-7ca7-3358-99be-81346fcc4c65", "abstract"=>"<sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Learning and perception of visual stimuli by free-flying honeybees has been shown to vary dramatically depending on the way insects are trained. Fine color discrimination is achieved when both a target and a distractor are present during training (differential conditioning), whilst if the same target is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning), discrimination is coarse and limited to perceptually dissimilar alternatives. Another way to potentially enhance discrimination is to increase the penalty associated with the distractor. Here we studied whether coupling the distractor with a highly concentrated quinine solution improves color discrimination of both similar and dissimilar colors by free-flying honeybees. As we assumed that quinine acts as an aversive stimulus, we analyzed whether aversion, if any, is based on an aversive sensory input at the gustatory level or on a post-ingestional malaise following quinine feeding.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>We show that the presence of a highly concentrated quinine solution (60 mM) acts as an aversive reinforcer promoting rejection of the target associated with it, and improving discrimination of perceptually similar stimuli but not of dissimilar stimuli. Free-flying bees did not use remote cues to detect the presence of quinine solution; the aversive effect exerted by this substance was mediated via a gustatory input, i.e. via a distasteful sensory experience, rather than via a post-ingestional malaise.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusion</title> <p>The present study supports the hypothesis that aversion conditioning is important for understanding how and what animals perceive and learn. By using this form of conditioning coupled with appetitive conditioning in the framework of a differential conditioning procedure, it is possible to uncover discrimination capabilities that may remain otherwise unsuspected. We show, therefore, that visual discrimination is not an absolute phenomenon but can be modulated by experience.</p> </sec>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/aversive-reinforcement-improves-visual-discrimination-learning-freeflying-honeybees", "reader_count"=>88, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>8, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/824264"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Plots of colored stimuli used in experiment 2 in a COC color space (left) and in a hexagon color space (right) for the trichromatic vision of honeybees. Distances between the two stimuli used for each bee are 1.5 COC units and 0.08 hexagon units for the ‘yellow’ group (3N vs. 68N) and 1.3 COC units and 0.08 hexagon units for the ‘blue’ group (43N vs. 47N). Numbers refer to the HKS papers references. (B) Learning acquisition (% of correct choices by blocks of 5 trials; means ± s.e.m.; N = 8 for each curve). The curve with black dots represents acquisition by the quinine group (CS− reinforced with quinine); the curve with white dots represents acquisition by the water group (CS− reinforced with water). (C) Performance (means + s.e.m. of correct choices; N = 8 for each bar) in non-rewarded learning test. The black bar represents the results of the quinine group; the white bar represents the results of the water group. Only bees from the quinine group solved this difficult discrimination task (**: p&lt;0.005; ***: p&lt;0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quinine", "perceptually", "colors"], "article_id"=>494632, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Aurore Avarguès-Weber", "Maria G. de Brito Sanchez", "Martin Giurfa", "Adrian G. Dyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015370.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_Experiment_2_Does_quinine_improve_visual_discrimination_of_perceptually_similar_colors_when_used_as_negative_reinforcer_/494632", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 2: Does quinine improve visual discrimination of perceptually similar colors when used as negative reinforcer?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:52:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/824369"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Standard curve relating drinking duration (s) and volume of 1 M sucrose solution imbibed (µL). These variables were linearly correlated (p&lt;0.001). The arrows in inset show the means of water (W) and quinine (Q) drinking duration (***: p&lt;0.001). (B) Percentage of droplets (1 µL in black or 2 µL in white) of sucrose, quinine or water totally imbibed by bees when presented together on a plate. These data show that in a foraging context, free-flying honeybees don't imbibe quinine but do imbibe water (*: p&lt;0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mechanisms", "aversive", "quinine"], "article_id"=>494742, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Aurore Avarguès-Weber", "Maria G. de Brito Sanchez", "Martin Giurfa", "Adrian G. Dyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015370.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_Experiment_3_Possible_mechanisms_accounting_for_the_aversive_nature_of_quinine_solution_/494742", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 3: Possible mechanisms accounting for the aversive nature of quinine solution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:53:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/824073"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Diagram of the Y-maze used in the experiments. (B) Photograph showing how stimuli were presented in association with a solution holder in each arm of the Y-maze during experiment 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>494444, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Aurore Avarguès-Weber", "Maria G. de Brito Sanchez", "Martin Giurfa", "Adrian G. Dyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015370.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Set_up_used_in_this_study_/494444", "title"=>"Set-up used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:51:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/824155"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Plots of colored stimuli used in experiment 1 in a COC color space (left) and hexagon color space (right) for the trichromatic vision of honeybees. The colour distances between stimuli are above 2.5 COC units and above 0.2 hexagon units. Numbers refer to the HKS papers references. (B) Learning acquisition (correct choices (%) by blocks of 5 trials; means ± s.e.m.; N = 9 for each curve). The curve with black dots represents acquisition by the quinine group (CS− reinforced with quinine); the curve with white dots represents acquisition by the water group (CS− reinforced with water). (C) Performance (means + s.e.m. of percentages of CS+ choices (‘learning’ and ‘appetitive’ test) or CS− choices (‘aversive’ test); N = 9 for each bar) in non-rewarded tests. Black bars represent the results of the quinine group; white bars represent the results of the water group. The learning performance in this easy colour discrimination task was not significantly different between test groups. Bees from the quinine groups avoided the stimulus associated with quinine during training when proposed versus a neutral stimulus, however this avoidance was not found in the water group (**: p&lt;0.005).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quinine", "perceptually", "dissimilar", "colors"], "article_id"=>494521, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Aurore Avarguès-Weber", "Maria G. de Brito Sanchez", "Martin Giurfa", "Adrian G. Dyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015370.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_Experiment_1_Does_quinine_improve_visual_discrimination_of_perceptually_dissimilar_colors_when_used_as_negative_reinforcer_/494521", "title"=>"Results of Experiment 1: Does quinine improve visual discrimination of perceptually dissimilar colors when used as negative reinforcer?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:51:54"}

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Relative Metric

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