Divergent Chemical Cues Elicit Seed Collecting by Ants in an Obligate Multi-Species Mutualism in Lowland Amazonia
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{"title"=>"Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland amazonia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elsa", "last_name"=>"Youngsteadt", "scopus_author_id"=>"15040509900"}, {"first_name"=>"Patricia Guerra", "last_name"=>"Bustios", "scopus_author_id"=>"16030804200"}, {"first_name"=>"Coby", "last_name"=>"Schal", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005504343"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78651233884", "sgr"=>"78651233884", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21209898", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0015822", "pui"=>"361077799"}, "id"=>"00656ff4-8b8c-311f-b1e7-f4e53d4dd4a3", "abstract"=>"In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs). In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. To address the chemical basis of the ant-seed interaction, we surveyed seed chemistry in nine AG species and eight non-AG congeners. We detected seven phenolic and terpenoid volatiles common to seeds of all or most of the AG species, but a blend of the shared compounds was not attractive to the AG ant Camponotus femoratus. We also analyzed seeds of three AG species (Anthurium gracile, Codonanthe uleana, and Peperomia macrostachya) using behavior-guided fractionation. At least one chromatographic fraction of each seed extract elicited retrieval behavior in C. femoratus, but the active fractions of the three plant species differed in polarity and chemical composition, indicating that shared compounds alone did not explain seed-carrying behavior. We suggest that the various AG seed species must elicit seed-carrying with different chemical cues.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/divergent-chemical-cues-elicit-seed-collecting-ants-obligate-multispecies-mutualism-lowland-amazonia", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Colombia"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/809188"], "description"=>"<p>These compounds were not detected in non-AG congeners (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822#pone-0015822-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822#pone-0015822-t002\" target=\"_blank\">2</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compounds", "ag"], "article_id"=>479558, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Elsa Youngsteadt", "Patricia Guerra Bustios", "Coby Schal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structures_of_compounds_frequently_detected_in_AG_seeds_/479558", "title"=>"Structures of compounds frequently detected in AG seeds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-30 02:39:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403708", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403718", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403724", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403734", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403740", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403746"], "description"=>"<div><p>In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs). In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. To address the chemical basis of the ant-seed interaction, we surveyed seed chemistry in nine AG species and eight non-AG congeners. We detected seven phenolic and terpenoid volatiles common to seeds of all or most of the AG species, but a blend of the shared compounds was not attractive to the AG ant <em>Camponotus femoratus</em>. We also analyzed seeds of three AG species (<em>Anthurium gracile</em>, <em>Codonanthe uleana</em>, and <em>Peperomia macrostachya</em>) using behavior-guided fractionation. At least one chromatographic fraction of each seed extract elicited retrieval behavior in <em>C. femoratus</em>, but the active fractions of the three plant species differed in polarity and chemical composition, indicating that shared compounds alone did not explain seed-carrying behavior. We suggest that the various AG seed species must elicit seed-carrying with different chemical cues.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["divergent", "cues", "elicit", "collecting", "ants", "obligate", "multi-species", "mutualism", "lowland", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>139767, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Elsa Youngsteadt", "Patricia Guerra Bustios", "Coby Schal"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Divergent_Chemical_Cues_Elicit_Seed_Collecting_by_Ants_in_an_Obligate_Multi_Species_Mutualism_in_Lowland_Amazonia/139767", "title"=>"Divergent Chemical Cues Elicit Seed Collecting by Ants in an Obligate Multi-Species Mutualism in Lowland Amazonia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-12-30 02:42:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/809515"], "description"=>"<p>Results of ANOVA on ranks, testing for effects of extract type (hexane or methanol extracts of <i>P. macrostachya</i>, <i>C. uleana</i>, or blanks) on the order in which ants retrieved test seeds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anova", "extract", "methanol", "extracts", "ants"], "article_id"=>479885, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Elsa Youngsteadt", "Patricia Guerra Bustios", "Coby Schal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_ANOVA_on_ranks_testing_for_effects_of_extract_type_hexane_or_methanol_extracts_of_P_macrostachya_C_uleana_or_blanks_on_the_order_in_which_ants_retrieved_test_seeds_/479885", "title"=>"Results of ANOVA on ranks, testing for effects of extract type (hexane or methanol extracts of <i>P. macrostachya</i>, <i>C. uleana</i>, or blanks) on the order in which ants retrieved test seeds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-30 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/809325"], "description"=>"<p>Ants preferred different chromatographic fractions of <i>A. gracile</i>, <i>C. uleana</i> and <i>P. macrostachya</i> extracts in the seed carrying assay. Seeds were extracted in hexane (<i>P. macrostachya</i>) or ethyl acetate (<i>A. gracile</i> and <i>C. uleana</i>) and the crude extract was tested in the seed carrying assay (left). Fractions of the crude extract were eluted successively with hexane, 5% to 70% ethyl acetate in hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol (right). Proportions of seeds carried are out of 30 seeds for <i>A. gracile</i> and <i>P. macrostachya</i>, and out of 15 seeds for <i>C. uleana</i>. Each extract or fraction was tested with at least three different ant colonies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chromatographic", "fractions", "ag"], "article_id"=>479694, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Elsa Youngsteadt", "Patricia Guerra Bustios", "Coby Schal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ant_response_to_chromatographic_fractions_of_AG_seed_extracts_/479694", "title"=>"Ant response to chromatographic fractions of AG seed extracts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-30 02:41:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/809487"], "description"=>"a<p>Origin: CC, Estacion Biologica Cocha Cashu; CICRA, Centro de Investigacion y Capacitacion Rio Los Amigos.</p>b<p>Solvent: EtOH, hex: seeds were stored in ethanol, then ethanol and seeds were extracted with hexane; hex: seeds were extracted in hexane for 1 hr (2004) or 30 min (2005); EtOAC: seeds were extracted in ethyl acetate for 30 min.</p>c<p>Compounds: <b>1</b>, 6-MMS; <b>2</b>, β-springene; <b>3</b>, α-springene; <b>4</b>, geranyllinalool; <b>5</b>, unknown #1; <b>6</b>, unknown #2; <b>7</b>, geranylgeraniol.</p>d<p><i>Codonanthe</i> sp. was collected from <i>Azteca</i> sp. gardens in which it was the only epiphyte species present. Though this species was identified by Vega <i>et al.</i> (2006) as <i>C. uleana</i>, it was morphologically distinct and its seeds were not retrieved by <i>C. femoratus</i> when offered.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevalent", "ag", "compounds", "non-ag"], "article_id"=>479856, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Elsa Youngsteadt", "Patricia Guerra Bustios", "Coby Schal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Absence_of_prevalent_AG_compounds_in_non_AG_epiphytes_/479856", "title"=>"Absence of prevalent AG compounds in non-AG epiphytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-30 02:44:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/809261"], "description"=>"<p>AG ants (<i>C. femoratus</i>) preferred hexane extracts of <i>P. macrostachya</i> and methanol extracts of <i>C. uleana</i> in the seed-carrying assay. All extracts were preferred over solvent blanks. All six treatments were presented concurrently, and bars represent mean rank order in which seeds were carried during 24 30-min trials with three different ant colonies. Error bars are SEM. (Seeds that were carried last were assigned a rank of zero; a seed that was carried first was assigned a rank of five, and so on.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hexane", "methanol", "extracts", "ag"], "article_id"=>479634, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Elsa Youngsteadt", "Patricia Guerra Bustios", "Coby Schal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ant_response_to_hexane_versus_methanol_extracts_of_AG_seeds_/479634", "title"=>"Ant response to hexane versus methanol extracts of AG seeds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-30 02:40:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/809551"], "description"=>"a<p>Origin: CC, Estacion Biologica Cocha Cashu; CICRA, Centro de Investigacion y Capacitacion Rio Los Amigos.</p>b<p>Solvent: EtOH, hex: seeds were stored in ethanol, then ethanol and seeds were extracted with hexane; hex: seeds were extracted in hexane for 1 hr (2004) or 30 min (2005); EtOAC: seeds were extracted in ethyl acetate for 30 min.</p>c<p>Compounds: <b>1</b>, 6-MMS; <b>2</b>, β-springene; <b>3</b>, α-springene; <b>4</b>, geranyllinalool; <b>5</b>, unknown #1; <b>6</b>, unknown #2; <b>7</b>, geranylgeraniol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["volatile", "compounds", "ag"], "article_id"=>479922, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Elsa Youngsteadt", "Patricia Guerra Bustios", "Coby Schal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Occurrence_of_seven_volatile_compounds_in_AG_epiphytes_/479922", "title"=>"Occurrence of seven volatile compounds in AG epiphytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-30 02:45:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/809459"], "description"=>"a<p>mean ± SD, 2 analyses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amino", "methanol", "fractions"], "article_id"=>479833, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Elsa Youngsteadt", "Patricia Guerra Bustios", "Coby Schal"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015822.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sugar_and_amino_acid_content_of_methanol_fractions_of_A_gracile_and_C_uleana_extracts_/479833", "title"=>"Sugar and amino acid content of methanol fractions of <i>A. gracile</i> and <i>C. uleana</i> extracts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-30 02:43:53"}

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Relative Metric

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