Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA
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{"title"=>"Dinosaur census reveals abundant Tyrannosaurus and rare ontogenetic stages in the upper cretaceous hell creek formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John R.", "last_name"=>"Horner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102765776"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark B.", "last_name"=>"Goodwin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201733618"}, {"first_name"=>"Nathan", "last_name"=>"Myhrvold", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506682262"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79951833428", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0016574", "pui"=>"361300448", "pmid"=>"21347420", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79951833428", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"552a4645-736a-3382-9671-0669fa03854b", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999-2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399756", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399794", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399838", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399886", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399929", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399964"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p><em>Tyrannosaurus</em> skeletons are as abundant as <em>Edmontosaurus</em>, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., <em>Troodon</em> and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests <em>Tyrannosaurus</em> was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. <em>Tyrannosaurus</em> adults may not have competed with <em>Tyrannosaurus</em> juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p><em>Triceratops</em> is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of <em>Triceratops</em> consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dinosaur", "census", "reveals", "abundant", "ontogenetic", "stages", "cretaceous", "creek", "usa"], "article_id"=>138969, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John R. Horner", "Mark B. Goodwin", "Nathan Myhrvold"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Dinosaur_Census_Reveals_Abundant_Tyrannosaurus_and_Rare_Ontogenetic_Stages_in_the_Upper_Cretaceous_Hell_Creek_Formation_Maastrichtian_Montana_USA/138969", "title"=>"Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant <em>Tyrannosaurus</em> and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-02-09 02:29:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799438"], "description"=>"<p>Contiguous outcrops are traceable over an area of about 1000 square km adjacent to Fort Peck Lake shown in blue. Dark orange represents the lower Hell Creek Formation and light orange represents the middle and upper Hell Creek Formation. The enlarged view of the study area is indicated by the rectangle in the northeast quarter of the map of Montana.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cretaceous", "creek", "peck", "northeastern"], "article_id"=>469806, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John R. Horner", "Mark B. Goodwin", "Nathan Myhrvold"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Index_map_of_the_Upper_Cretaceous_Hell_Creek_Formation_along_Ft_Peck_Lake_in_northeastern_Montana_USA_/469806", "title"=>"Index map of the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation along Ft. Peck Lake in northeastern Montana, USA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-09 02:43:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799559"], "description"=>"<p>Pie charts I – IV reflect the relative abundance of dinosaur genera based on skeletons (charts I and IV) and individual bones (charts II and III). <i>Tyrannosaurus</i> skeletons are as abundant as the hadrosaurid <i>Edmontosaurus</i>, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common as <i>Edmontosaurus</i> in the lower Hell Creek Formation. Individual bones of <i>Tyrannosaurus</i> and <i>Edmontosaurus</i> are found approximately in the same order of magnitude within the lag deposits. <b>Key: </b><b>Pie chart I</b>, dinosaur skeletons in the upper Hell Creek Formation (U3); <b>Pie chart II</b>, dinosaur bones from the “Doldrum’s” lag deposit at the base of the Apex Sandstone (AS); <b>Pie chart III</b>, dinosaur bones from the “3B-1” lag deposit at the base of the Jen-rex Sand; and <b>Pie chart IV</b>, dinosaur skeletons from the lower Hell Creek Formation (L3). <b>Abbreviations: </b><b>L3lBS</b>, lower basal sandstone; <b>L3.mBS</b>, middle basal sandstone; <b>L3.uBS</b>, upper basal sandstone; <b>L3.lMS</b>, lower mudstone; <b>L3.mMS</b>, middle mudstone; <b>L3.uMS</b>, upper mudstone; <b>U3.AS</b>, Apex sandstone; <b>U3.ibMS</b>, interbedded mudstone; <b>U3.10mS</b>, 10 meter sandstone; <b>U3.uMS</b>, upper mudstone; <b>U3.CZ</b>, coal zone.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["divisions", "creek", "stratigraphic", "details", "sequences", "referenced", "dinosaur"], "article_id"=>469927, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John R. Horner", "Mark B. Goodwin", "Nathan Myhrvold"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stratigraphic_divisions_of_the_Hell_Creek_Formation_with_stratigraphic_details_of_the_upper_third_U3_and_lower_third_L3_sequences_referenced_in_the_text_and_the_associated_pie_chart_showing_dinosaur_abundance_/469927", "title"=>"Stratigraphic divisions of the Hell Creek Formation with stratigraphic details of the upper third (U3) and lower third (L3) sequences referenced in the text and the associated pie chart showing dinosaur abundance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-09 02:45:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799666"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> A smaller posterior tooth from position #14 from the front of the jaw. <b>B.</b> A larger tooth from position #4 in the same jaw. This demonstrates why shed dinosaur teeth are not a reliable indicator of relative skeletal size and ontogenetic age.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["teeth", "medium-sized", "skeleton"], "article_id"=>470039, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John R. Horner", "Mark B. Goodwin", "Nathan Myhrvold"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tyrannosaurus_MOR_1125_B_rex_teeth_from_the_lower_jaw_of_this_medium_sized_skeleton_illustrate_the_extreme_range_in_overall_tooth_size_within_one_individual_/470039", "title"=>"<i>Tyrannosaurus</i> (MOR 1125, “B-rex”) teeth from the lower jaw of this medium-sized skeleton illustrate the extreme range in overall tooth size within one individual.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-09 00:00:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799763"], "description"=>"<p><i>Triceratops</i> is the most common dinosaur at 40% (n = 72); <i>Tyrannosaurus</i> is second at 24% (n = 44); <i>Edmontosaurus</i> is third at 20% (n = 36) followed by <i>Thescelosaurus</i> at 8% (n = 15), <i>Ornithomimus</i> at 5% (n = 9), and <i>Pachycephalosaurus</i> and <i>Ankylosaurus</i> at 1% (n = 2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["averaged", "census", "large-bodied", "dinosaurs", "creek"], "article_id"=>470133, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John R. Horner", "Mark B. Goodwin", "Nathan Myhrvold"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pie_chart_of_the_time_averaged_census_for_large_bodied_dinosaurs_from_the_entire_Hell_Creek_Formation_in_the_study_area_/470133", "title"=>"Pie chart of the time averaged census for large-bodied dinosaurs from the entire Hell Creek Formation in the study area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-09 00:02:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799806"], "description"=>"<p>Values determined from the dinosaur census tables (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574#pone.0016574.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Tables S1</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574#pone.0016574.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574#pone.0016574.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574#pone.0016574.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574#pone.0016574.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S5</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574#pone.0016574.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S6</a>). Empty cell indicates no record for that taxon. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574#pone-0016574-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a> for detailed stratigraphic section of the Hell Creek Formation and corresponding pie chart showing relative abundance of dinosaur genera. Abbreviations: <i>Tric, Triceratops; Tyrn, Tyrannosaurus; Edmn, Edmontosaurus; Thes, Thescelosaurus; Orni, Ornithomimus; Pachy, Pachycephalosaurus; Anky, Ankylosaurus.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["creek", "dinosaur"], "article_id"=>470184, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John R. Horner", "Mark B. Goodwin", "Nathan Myhrvold"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016574.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hell_Creek_Formation_dinosaur_census_/470184", "title"=>"Hell Creek Formation dinosaur census.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-09 00:03:04"}

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Relative Metric

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