Persistence of Livestock Associated MRSA CC398 in Humans Is Dependent on Intensity of Animal Contact
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{"title"=>"Persistence of livestock associated MRSA CC398 in humans is dependent on intensity of animal contact", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Haitske", "last_name"=>"Graveland", "scopus_author_id"=>"16028584900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jaap A.", "last_name"=>"Wagenaar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005923325"}, {"first_name"=>"Kelly", "last_name"=>"Bergs", "scopus_author_id"=>"39761121700"}, {"first_name"=>"Hans", "last_name"=>"Heesterbeek", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507799504"}, {"first_name"=>"Dick", "last_name"=>"Heederik", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006663815"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79951786094", "sgr"=>"79951786094", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0016830", "pmid"=>"21347386", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"361298739"}, "id"=>"4928cb15-5dac-31f9-af3f-63d3df12e10a", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: The presence of Livestock Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) in humans is associated with intensity of animal contact. It is unknown whether the presence of LA-MRSA is a result of carriage or retention of MRSA-contaminated dust. We conducted a longitudinal study among 155 veal farmers in which repeated nasal and throat swabs were taken for MRSA detection. Periods with and without animal exposure were covered. METHODS: Randomly, 51 veal calf farms were visited from June-December 2008. Participants were asked to fill in questionnaires (n = 155) to identify potential risk factors for MRSA colonisation. Nasal and throat swabs were repeatedly taken from each participant for approximately 2 months. Swabs were analysed for MRSA and MSSA by selective bacteriological culturing. Spa-types of the isolates were identified and a ST398 specific PCR was performed. Data were analyzed using generalized estimation equations (GEE) to allow for correlated observations within individuals. RESULTS: Mean MRSA prevalence was 38% in farmers and 16% in family members. Presence of MRSA in farmers was strongly related to duration of animal contact and was strongly reduced in periods with absence of animal contact (-58%). Family members, especially children, were more often carriers when the farmer was a carrier (OR = 2, P<0.05). Only 7% (n = 11) of the participants appeared to be persistent carriers. A large heterogeneity in spa-types was detected, however 92.7% belonged to LA-MRSA CC398. A surprisingly high fraction of the spa-types (7.3%) did not belong to CC398. CONCLUSION: The presence of LA-MRSA in farmers is strongly animal-exposure related. The rapidly decreasing MRSA prevalence during absence of animal contact suggests that LA-MRSA is a poor persistent colonizer in most humans. These results are of relevance for MRSA control strategies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/persistence-livestock-associated-mrsa-cc398-humans-dependent-intensity-animal-contact", "reader_count"=>110, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>8, "Chemistry"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>30, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>6, "Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>30}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Ghana"=>1, "Nigeria"=>1, "France"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799608"], "description"=>"<p>* MRSA positive means MRSA detected in at least one out of 4 samples (nasal and/or throat) taken per sampling day.</p><p>** Persistent carriers in bold (Persistent carrier: MRSA positive results on all sampling days; number of sampling days dependent on duration of low exposed period).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrsa", "carriage", "members"], "article_id"=>469977, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Haitske Graveland", "Jaap A. Wagenaar", "Kelly Bergs", "Hans Heesterbeek", "Dick Heederik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016830.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Persistence_of_MRSA_carriage_in_farmers_family_members_and_others_/469977", "title"=>"Persistence of MRSA carriage in farmers, family members and others.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:40:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799672"], "description"=>"∧<p>CI, confidence interval.</p><p>* mean prevalence over 10 sampling days based on nasal/throat swabs taken in morning.</p><p>** mean prevalence over sampling days in either low (on average 3.4 sampling days) or high exposed period (on average 5.8 sampling days).</p><p>*** mean prevalence over 3 sampling days based on nasal swabs taken in evening.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrsa", "mssa"], "article_id"=>470043, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Haitske Graveland", "Jaap A. Wagenaar", "Kelly Bergs", "Hans Heesterbeek", "Dick Heederik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016830.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_daily_MRSA_and_MSSA_prevalence_/470043", "title"=>"Mean daily MRSA and MSSA prevalence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:40:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799644"], "description"=>"<p>* mean prevalence over 10 sampling days.</p><p>** mean prevalence over 3 sampling days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intermittent-", "non-carriers"], "article_id"=>470010, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Haitske Graveland", "Jaap A. Wagenaar", "Kelly Bergs", "Hans Heesterbeek", "Dick Heederik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016830.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_persistent_intermittent_and_non_carriers_of_MRSA_/470010", "title"=>"Characteristics of persistent-, intermittent- and non-carriers of MRSA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:40:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799516"], "description"=>"<p>Participants were followed for approximately two months during periods of both high and low/no exposure. The study starts 3 weeks prior to, and ends 3 weeks after, the low/no exposure period. Nasal and throat swabs were taken in the morning and evening once a week in high exposure periods, and twice a week in low exposure period. * Nasal samples taken in the evening of sampling day 2 (high exposed), 5 and 7 (low exposed) were additionally screened for MSSA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["overview"], "article_id"=>469881, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Haitske Graveland", "Jaap A. Wagenaar", "Kelly Bergs", "Hans Heesterbeek", "Dick Heederik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016830.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_overview_of_the_study_design_/469881", "title"=>"Schematic overview of the study design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:39:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799578"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis based on samples taken in the evening of sampling day 2, 5 and 7. Associations shown for different dependent variables separately (nasal and/or throat carriage).</p><p>* p<0.05,</p><p>** p<0.10,</p><p>*** Expressed per 10 years,</p><p>**** Refers to duration in days of either empty barn (low exposure) or holiday period (no exposure),</p><p>***** Expressed per 24 hours. Refers to duration of exposure to animals in 3 days before sampling.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrsa", "carriage", "mssa", "nasal", "multivariate"], "article_id"=>469942, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Haitske Graveland", "Jaap A. Wagenaar", "Kelly Bergs", "Hans Heesterbeek", "Dick Heederik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016830.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_between_MRSA_carriage_and_determinants_including_MSSA_nasal_carriage_in_a_multivariate_analysis_/469942", "title"=>"Associations between MRSA carriage and determinants, including MSSA nasal carriage in a multivariate analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:40:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799750"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics of study population of 155 participants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["155"], "article_id"=>470116, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Haitske Graveland", "Jaap A. Wagenaar", "Kelly Bergs", "Hans Heesterbeek", "Dick Heederik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016830.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_study_population_of_155_participants_/470116", "title"=>"Characteristics of study population of 155 participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:41:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799715"], "description"=>"<p>* p<0.05,</p><p>** Expressed per 10 years,</p><p>*** Refers to duration in days of either empty barn (low exposure) or holiday period (no exposure),</p><p>**** Expressed per 24 hours. Refers to duration of exposure to animals in 3 days before sampling.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrsa", "nasal", "carriage", "determinants", "regression"], "article_id"=>470079, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Haitske Graveland", "Jaap A. Wagenaar", "Kelly Bergs", "Hans Heesterbeek", "Dick Heederik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016830.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_between_MRSA_nasal_and_throat_carriage_and_determinants_in_a_multiple_regression_analysis_/470079", "title"=>"Associations between MRSA nasal and throat carriage and determinants in a multiple regression analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:41:06"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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