Chernobyl Birds Have Smaller Brains
Publication Date
February 04, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Anders Pape Møller, Andea Bonisoli Alquati, Geir Rudolfsen & Timothy A. Mousseau
Volume
6
Issue
2
Pages
e16862
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0016862
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21390202
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3033907
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21390202
Web of Science
000287037000028
Scopus
79951663714
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/chernobyl-birds-smaller-brains
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Chernobyl birds have smaller brains", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anders Pape", "last_name"=>"Møller", "scopus_author_id"=>"55574503700"}, {"first_name"=>"Andea", "last_name"=>"Bonisoli-Alquati", "scopus_author_id"=>"23567867200"}, {"first_name"=>"Geir", "last_name"=>"Rudolfsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507660051"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy A.", "last_name"=>"Mousseau", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004473969"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"361262136", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0016862", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79951663714", "pmid"=>"21390202", "sgr"=>"79951663714"}, "id"=>"fb311eac-d9f7-3e58-8f81-30095e1cdd7e", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/chernobyl-birds-smaller-brains", "reader_count"=>111, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>16, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>16}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "France"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>6}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/800788"], "description"=>"<p>Adapted from Shestopalov <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862#pone.0016862-Shestopalov1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contamination", "levels", "chernobyl"], "article_id"=>471154, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Anders Pape Møller", "Andea Bonisoli-Alquati", "Geir Rudolfsen", "Timothy A. Mousseau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Background_contamination_levels_Ci_km_2_in_the_Chernobyl_region_and_location_of_study_sites_/471154", "title"=>"Background contamination levels (Ci/km<sup>2</sup>) in the Chernobyl region and location of study sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-04 00:19:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/800997"], "description"=>"<p>The line is the linear regression line with the equation log<sub>10</sub>(Head volume)  = 3.3918−0.0045 log<sub>10</sub>(Background radiation). Residuals from a model that included species as a predictor were added mean log<sub>10</sub>-transformed head volume 3.3934 to facilitate interpretation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["birds", "controlling"], "article_id"=>471363, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Anders Pape Møller", "Andea Bonisoli-Alquati", "Geir Rudolfsen", "Timothy A. Mousseau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Head_volume_of_birds_mm_3_in_relation_to_level_of_background_radiation_181_Sv_h_after_controlling_for_species_and_body_mass_/471363", "title"=>"Head volume of birds (mm<sup>3</sup>) in relation to level of background radiation (µSv/h), after controlling for species and body mass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-04 00:22:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801137"], "description"=>"<p>The line is the linear regression line with the equation log<sub>10</sub>(Head volume)  = 2.3922−0.0004 log<sub>10</sub>(Background radiation). Residuals from a model that included species as a predictor were added mean log<sub>10</sub>-transformed body mass 2.3922 to facilitate interpretation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["birds", "controlling"], "article_id"=>471508, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Anders Pape Møller", "Andea Bonisoli-Alquati", "Geir Rudolfsen", "Timothy A. Mousseau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_mass_of_birds_g_in_relation_to_level_of_background_radiation_181_Sv_h_after_controlling_for_species_/471508", "title"=>"Body mass of birds (g) in relation to level of background radiation (µSv/h), after controlling for species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-04 00:25:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400234", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400265", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400332", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400368"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Finding</h3><p>Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chernobyl", "birds", "smaller", "brains"], "article_id"=>139050, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Anders Pape Møller", "Andea Bonisoli-Alquati", "Geir Rudolfsen", "Timothy A. Mousseau"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>29, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Chernobyl_Birds_Have_Smaller_Brains/139050", "title"=>"Chernobyl Birds Have Smaller Brains", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-02-04 02:30:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801359"], "description"=>"<p>The model had the statistics F<sub>67,448</sub> = 171.15, r<sup>2</sup> = 0.96, P<0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "ecology", "biophysics", "neuroscience", "developmental biology"], "article_id"=>471726, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Anders Pape Møller", "Andea Bonisoli-Alquati", "Geir Rudolfsen", "Timothy A. Mousseau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Head_volume_in_relation_to_species_background_radiation_and_body_mass_/471726", "title"=>"Head volume in relation to species, background radiation and body mass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-04 00:28:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801256"], "description"=>"<p>The line is the linear regression line with the equation log<sub>10</sub>(Head volume)  = 3.0742−0.0004 log<sub>10</sub>(Background radiation). Residuals from a model that included species as a predictor were added mean log<sub>10</sub>-transformed beak length 3.0742 to facilitate interpretation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["birds", "controlling"], "article_id"=>471631, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Anders Pape Møller", "Andea Bonisoli-Alquati", "Geir Rudolfsen", "Timothy A. Mousseau"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016862.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Beak_length_of_birds_mm_in_relation_to_level_of_background_radiation_181_Sv_h_after_controlling_for_species_/471631", "title"=>"Beak length of birds (mm) in relation to level of background radiation (µSv/h), after controlling for species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-04 00:27:11"}

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Relative Metric

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