Who's Afraid of the Boss: Cultural Differences in Social Hierarchies Modulate Self-Face Recognition in Chinese and Americans
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{"title"=>"Who's afraid of the boss: Cultural differences in social hierarchies modulate self-face recognition in Chinese and Americans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sook Lei", "last_name"=>"Liew", "scopus_author_id"=>"36992162200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yina", "last_name"=>"Ma", "scopus_author_id"=>"23492762600"}, {"first_name"=>"Shihui", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405942378"}, {"first_name"=>"Lisa", "last_name"=>"Aziz-Zadeh", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505929502"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79951894375", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0016901", "pui"=>"361318626", "pmid"=>"21359209", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79951894375", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"9afe126f-54fe-38fe-8563-9a851f0823ea", "abstract"=>"Human adults typically respond faster to their own face than to the faces of others. However, in Chinese participants, this self-face advantage is lost in the presence of one's supervisor, and they respond faster to their supervisor's face than to their own. While this “boss effect” suggests a strong modulation of self-processing in the presence of influential social superiors, the current study examined whether this effect was true across cultures. Given the wealth of literature on cultural differences between collectivist, interdependent versus individualistic, independent self-construals, we hypothesized that the boss effect might be weaker in independent than interdependent cultures. Twenty European American college students were asked to identify orientations of their own face or their supervisors' face. We found that European Americans, unlike Chinese participants, did not show a “boss effect” and maintained the self-face advantage even in the presence of their supervisor's face. Interestingly, however, their self-face advantage decreased as their ratings of their boss's perceived social status increased, suggesting that self-processing in Americans is influenced more by one's social status than by one's hierarchical position as a social superior. In addition, when their boss's face was presented with a labmate's face, American participants responded faster to the boss's face, indicating that the boss may represent general social dominance rather than a direct negative threat to oneself, in more independent cultures. Altogether, these results demonstrate a strong cultural modulation of self-processing in social contexts and suggest that the very concept of social positions, such as a boss, may hold markedly different meanings to the self across Western and East Asian cultures.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/whos-afraid-boss-cultural-differences-social-hierarchies-modulate-selfface-recognition-chinese-ameri", "reader_count"=>90, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Psychology"=>55, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>55}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Uruguay"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "China"=>2, "Finland"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/798181"], "description"=>"<p>American participants demonstrated a self-face advantage in both high threat (self and boss) and low threat (self and other faculty member) blocks shown on the left (A). Chinese participants demonstrated a boss-face advantage in the high threat block (self and boss), but a self-face advantage in the low threat block (self and other faculty member), shown on the right (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["graphs", "depicting", "normalized", "rts"], "article_id"=>468553, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sook-Lei Liew", "Yina Ma", "Shihui Han", "Lisa Aziz-Zadeh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016901.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bar_graphs_depicting_Culture_215_Face_215_Threat_normalized_RTs_left_hand_only_/468553", "title"=>"Bar graphs depicting Culture×Face×Threat normalized RTs (left hand only).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:32:40"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/798054"], "description"=>"<p>Participants ratings of fear of negative evaluation from the Brief-Fear of Negative Evaluation (B-FNE) questionnaire are presented for the boss (left; Americans in blue, Chinese in red) and for the other faculty member (right; Americans in blue, Chinese in red).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["american", "ratings", "bosses"], "article_id"=>468421, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sook-Lei Liew", "Yina Ma", "Shihui Han", "Lisa Aziz-Zadeh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016901.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chinese_and_American_ratings_of_fear_of_negative_evaluation_from_bosses_versus_faculty_members_/468421", "title"=>"Chinese and American ratings of fear of negative evaluation from bosses versus faculty members.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/798099"], "description"=>"<p>Participants' ratings of their boss's social status (x-axis) correlates positively with normalized RT differences (self minus boss; y-axis), R<sup>2</sup> = 0.225, p = .034.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["normalized", "rt", "european", "americans"], "article_id"=>468471, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sook-Lei Liew", "Yina Ma", "Shihui Han", "Lisa Aziz-Zadeh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016901.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_boss_s_perceived_social_status_and_normalized_RT_difference_in_European_Americans_boss_self_/468471", "title"=>"Correlation between boss's perceived social status and normalized RT difference in European Americans (boss-self).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:32:16"}

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Relative Metric

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