The Illusion of Owning a Third Arm
Publication Date
February 23, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Arvid Guterstam, Valeria I. Petkova & H. Henrik Ehrsson
Volume
6
Issue
2
Pages
e17208
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0017208
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21383847
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044173
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21383847
Web of Science
000287657500043
Scopus
79952033322
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/illusion-owning-third-arm
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The illusion of owning a third arm", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Arvid", "last_name"=>"Guterstam", "scopus_author_id"=>"36995915400"}, {"first_name"=>"Valeria I.", "last_name"=>"Petkova", "scopus_author_id"=>"25825450600"}, {"first_name"=>"H. Henrik", "last_name"=>"Ehrsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007134305"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79952033322", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0017208", "pui"=>"361332455", "pmid"=>"21383847", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952033322", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"43e0c725-7bd4-37cc-a29d-d3c3539d34aa", "abstract"=>"Could it be possible that, in the not-so-distant future, we will be able to reshape the human body so as to have extra limbs? A third arm helping us out with the weekly shopping in the local grocery store, or an extra artificial limb assisting a paralysed person? Here we report a perceptual illusion in which a rubber right hand, placed beside the real hand in full view of the participant, is perceived as a supernumerary limb belonging to the participant's own body. This effect was supported by questionnaire data in conjunction with physiological evidence obtained from skin conductance responses when physically threatening either the rubber hand or the real one. In four well-controlled experiments, we demonstrate the minimal required conditions for the elicitation of this \"supernumerary hand illusion\". In the fifth, and final experiment, we show that the illusion reported here is qualitatively different from the traditional rubber hand illusion as it is characterised by less disownership of the real hand and a stronger feeling of having two right hands. These results suggest that the artificial hand 'borrows' some of the multisensory processes that represent the real hand, leading to duplication of touch and ownership of two right arms. This work represents a major advance because it challenges the traditional view of the gross morphology of the human body as a fundamental constraint on what we can come to experience as our physical self, by showing that the body representation can easily be updated to incorporate an additional limb.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/illusion-owning-third-arm", "reader_count"=>276, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>57, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>72, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>44, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>57, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>72, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>44, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Arts and Humanities"=>5, "Philosophy"=>3, "Computer Science"=>17, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>32, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>24, "Design"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>110, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>110}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>18}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>5}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>32}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>24}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>17}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>4}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>11, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Portugal"=>2, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Belgium"=>3, "China"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>6}, "group_count"=>10}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796629"], "description"=>"<p>Questionnaire data from experiment 3 where synchronous brushing was applied on the real right hand and a rubber right hand (the illusion condition), a rubber left hand or a rubber right foot (the control conditions). During the illusion, we observed significantly stronger rubber hand ownership (S1–S2) compared to the rubber left hand (p = 0.007) and rubber right foot conditions (p<0.001), respectively; significantly stronger real hand disownership (S3–S4) than for both the rubber left hand (p<0.001) and the rubber right foot conditions (p<0.001); and a significantly stronger feeling of having two right hands (S5–S6) compared to the rubber right foot condition (p<0.001). This implies that participants only experience ownership of a supernumerary rubber hand when it resembles the real hand in respect to laterality (i.e. right-left matching) and limb type (i.e. both hands, but not a hand and a foot). The error bars represent the standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["owned", "supernumerary"], "article_id"=>467006, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Introspective_evidence_for_what_type_of_limb_that_can_be_owned_as_a_supernumerary_limb_/467006", "title"=>"Introspective evidence for what type of limb that can be owned as a supernumerary limb.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 01:56:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796775"], "description"=>"<p>Physiological data from experiment 4 showing the mean SCR for 26 participants when the artificial limb was threatened during the illusion (rubber right hand) and three control conditions (rotated rubber right hand, rubber left hand and rubber right foot). Planned comparisons revealed significantly greater SCR when threatening the artificial limb during the illusion compared to each of the three control conditions involving a: Rotated rubber right hand (p = 0.001), rubber left hand (p = 0.048), rubber right foot (p<0.001), respectively. Thus, these results provide SCR evidence that the rubber limb needs to resemble the real limb in respect of anatomical alignment, laterality and limb type for the supernumerary limb illusion to arise. The error bars represent the standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["owned", "supernumerary"], "article_id"=>467148, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Physiological_evidence_for_what_type_of_limb_that_can_be_owned_as_a_supernumerary_limb_/467148", "title"=>"Physiological evidence for what type of limb that can be owned as a supernumerary limb.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 01:59:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796250"], "description"=>"<p>Set-up used in experiment 5 to elicit the supernumerary hand illusion (left panel) and the traditional rubber hand illusion (right panel). Note that the only difference was the screen occluding vision of the real right hand in the latter condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>466631, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Supernumerary_hand_illusion_vs_traditional_rubber_hand_illusion_/466631", "title"=>"Supernumerary hand illusion vs. traditional rubber hand illusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 01:50:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796065"], "description"=>"<p>Set-up used to elicit the supernumerary hand illusion (left panel) and an illustration of the threat procedure, where we moved a knife close to the rubber hand or the real hand (right panel).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>466438, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illusion_set_up_/466438", "title"=>"Illusion set-up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 01:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796467"], "description"=>"<p>Physiological data from experiment 2 showing the mean skin conductance response (SCR) for 44 participants when the real hand or the rubber hand was threatened during synchronous brushing (the illusion condition) or asynchronous brushing (the control condition). There was a significantly greater SCR when threatening the rubber hand during the illusion (p = 0.001), but no significant difference in the SCR when threatening the real hand during the illusion compared to the control condition (p = 0.534). Thus, participants experienced ownership of the rubber hand without disowning their real hand. The error bars represent the standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["supernumerary"], "article_id"=>466851, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Physiological_evidence_for_the_supernumerary_hand_illusion_/466851", "title"=>"Physiological evidence for the supernumerary hand illusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 01:54:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796940"], "description"=>"<p>Questionnaire data from experiment 5 demonstrating the differences between the supernumerary hand illusion and the traditional rubber hand illusion. During the supernumerary hand illusion, participants experienced significantly weaker rubber hand ownership (S1–S2) (p<0.001), less real hand disownership (S3–S4) (p = 0.001) and had a stronger feeling of having two right hands (S5–S6) (p<0.001). The error bars represent the standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["qualities", "supernumerary"], "article_id"=>467312, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_unique_qualities_of_the_supernumerary_hand_illusion_/467312", "title"=>"The unique qualities of the supernumerary hand illusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 02:01:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796163"], "description"=>"<p>Set-ups used for the three different control conditions used in experiments 1, 3 and 4. The application of the brushstrokes on the real and artificial limbs is demonstrated in the left picture of each picture pair; to the right, the procedure of threatening the rubber limb with the knife is depicted. From left to right: the rotated rubber right hand, rubber left hand and rubber right foot conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>466542, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Control_conditions_/466542", "title"=>"Control conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 01:49:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398157", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398204"], "description"=>"<div><p>Could it be possible that, in the not-so-distant future, we will be able to reshape the human body so as to have extra limbs? A third arm helping us out with the weekly shopping in the local grocery store, or an extra artificial limb assisting a paralysed person? Here we report a perceptual illusion in which a rubber right hand, placed beside the real hand in full view of the participant, is perceived as a supernumerary limb belonging to the participant's own body. This effect was supported by questionnaire data in conjunction with physiological evidence obtained from skin conductance responses when physically threatening either the rubber hand or the real one. In four well-controlled experiments, we demonstrate the minimal required conditions for the elicitation of this “supernumerary hand illusion”. In the fifth, and final experiment, we show that the illusion reported here is qualitatively different from the traditional rubber hand illusion as it is characterised by less disownership of the real hand and a stronger feeling of having two right hands. These results suggest that the artificial hand ‘borrows’ some of the multisensory processes that represent the real hand, leading to duplication of touch and ownership of two right arms. This work represents a major advance because it challenges the traditional view of the gross morphology of the human body as a fundamental constraint on what we can come to experience as our physical self, by showing that the body representation can easily be updated to incorporate an additional limb.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["owning"], "article_id"=>138666, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Illusion_of_Owning_a_Third_Arm/138666", "title"=>"The Illusion of Owning a Third Arm", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 02:24:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796331"], "description"=>"<p>Questionnaire data from experiment 1 comparing synchronous brushing (the illusion condition) with asynchronous brushing and using a rotated rubber hand (the control conditions). The questionnaire consisted of ten statements, S1–S10, and the participants indicated their responses on a ten-point visual analogue scale ranging from 0 (“I do not agree at all”) to 9 (“I agree completely”). We observed significantly stronger rubber hand ownership (S1–S2) (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), no significant difference in real hand disownership (S3–S4) (p = 0.137 and p = 0.063, respectively) and a significantly stronger feeling of owning two right hands (S5–S6) (p<0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively) during the synchronous condition compared to the asynchronous and rotated rubber hand control conditions, respectively. The error bars represent the standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["supernumerary"], "article_id"=>466712, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Arvid Guterstam", "Valeria I. Petkova", "H. Henrik Ehrsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017208.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Introspective_evidence_for_the_supernumerary_hand_illusion_/466712", "title"=>"Introspective evidence for the supernumerary hand illusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-23 01:51:52"}

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