Hypomethylation of Intragenic LINE-1 Represses Transcription in Cancer Cells through AGO2
Publication Date
March 15, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Chatchawit Aporntewan, Chureerat Phokaew, Jittima Piriyapongsa, Chumpol Ngamphiw, et al
Volume
6
Issue
3
Pages
e17934
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0017934
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21423624
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3057998
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21423624
Web of Science
000288513900045
Scopus
79952672986
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/hypomethylation-intragenic-line1-represses-transcription-cancer-cells-through-ago2
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Hypomethylation of intragenic LINE-1 represses transcription in cancer cells through AGO2", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Chatchawit", "last_name"=>"Aporntewan", "scopus_author_id"=>"9335314400"}, {"first_name"=>"Chureerat", "last_name"=>"Phokaew", "scopus_author_id"=>"12807874200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jittima", "last_name"=>"Piriyapongsa", "scopus_author_id"=>"16643645200"}, {"first_name"=>"Chumpol", "last_name"=>"Ngamphiw", "scopus_author_id"=>"21743304700"}, {"first_name"=>"Chupong", "last_name"=>"Ittiwut", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506116014"}, {"first_name"=>"Sissades", "last_name"=>"Tongsima", "scopus_author_id"=>"55910026300"}, {"first_name"=>"Apiwat", "last_name"=>"Mutirangura", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003618633"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0017934", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952672986", "sgr"=>"79952672986", "pmid"=>"21423624", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361447229", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"b366ee71-fefd-3898-a779-de9e06806dca", "abstract"=>"In human cancers, the methylation of long interspersed nuclear element -1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons is reduced. This occurs within the context of genome wide hypomethylation, and although it is common, its role is poorly understood. L1s are widely distributed both inside and outside of genes, intragenic and intergenic, respectively. Interestingly, the insertion of active full-length L1 sequences into host gene introns disrupts gene expression. Here, we evaluated if intragenic L1 hypomethylation influences their host gene expression in cancer. First, we extracted data from L1base (http://l1base.molgen.mpg.de), a database containing putatively active L1 insertions, and compared intragenic and intergenic L1 characters. We found that intragenic L1 sequences have been conserved across evolutionary time with respect to transcriptional activity and CpG dinucleotide sites for mammalian DNA methylation. Then, we compared regulated mRNA levels of cells from two different experiments available from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), a database repository of high throughput gene expression data, (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo) by chi-square. The odds ratio of down-regulated genes between demethylated normal bronchial epithelium and lung cancer was high (p<1E(-27); OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 2.54-3.88), suggesting cancer genome wide hypomethylation down-regulating gene expression. Comprehensive analysis between L1 locations and gene expression showed that expression of genes containing L1s had a significantly higher likelihood to be repressed in cancer and hypomethylated normal cells. In contrast, many mRNAs derived from genes containing L1s are elevated in Argonaute 2 (AGO2 or EIF2C2)-depleted cells. Hypomethylated L1s increase L1 mRNA levels. Finally, we found that AGO2 targets intronic L1 pre-mRNA complexes and represses cancer genes. These findings represent one of the mechanisms of cancer genome wide hypomethylation altering gene expression. Hypomethylated intragenic L1s are a nuclear siRNA mediated cis-regulatory element that can repress genes. This epigenetic regulation of retrotransposons likely influences many aspects of genomic biology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hypomethylation-intragenic-line1-represses-transcription-cancer-cells-through-ago2", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>41, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>41}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Egypt"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Thailand"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791173"], "description"=>"<p>A) RNA immunoprecipitation/RT-PCR. TRIM38 is a miRNA binding site in\n intron of TRIM38. BCKDK and PSENEN are introns of the genes, lacking of\n miRNA binding site. RT- and RT+ are samples without and with\n reverse transcriptase treatment, respectively. B) 2×2 contingency\n table, p-values and odds ratios of chi-square test and C) grouped\n frequency distribution (histogram) of AGO2 binding sites corresponding\n with the location of antisense L1 with a 25-kb interval. and D)\n histogram of AGO2 binding sites corresponding with the location of sense\n L1 with a 25-kb interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["binds", "intragenic", "l1", "rna", "targets", "ago2", "regulated"], "article_id"=>461536, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AGO2_binds_intragenic_L1_RNA_and_targets_AGO2_regulated____genes_/461536", "title"=>"AGO2 binds intragenic L1 RNA and targets AGO2 regulated\n genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:25:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/790760"], "description"=>"<p>A) and B) are chi-square 2×2 tables, p values and odds ratios,\n comparing proportions of gastric cancer genes possessing L1s between up-\n (“Up”) or down- (“Down”) regulated and not up-\n or not down-regulated groups, respectively. C) Percentages of\n L1-containing mRNAs that are up- or down-regulated in various cancer\n types. D) EPHA3 mRNA and L1-EPHA3-IVS5 and IVS15 methylation levels in\n WSU-HN cells and Aza-dC-treated WSU-HN17s. E) Two chi-square 2×2\n tables, p values and odds ratios, comparing proportions of\n Aza-dC-treated hBECs or hMSCs genes possessing L1s between\n down-regulated (“Down”) and not down-regulated groups,\n respectively. F) % of mRNAs from genes containing L1s in\n Aza-dC-treated hBECs and hMSCs. “Up” and “Down”\n indicate increased and decreased expression, respectively. GSE records,\n GSM samples and type of <i>t</i>-test and 2×2 tables of\n chi-square tests are provided in Supporting <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table\n S3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["l1s", "repress", "cancer", "pattern", "demethylated"], "article_id"=>461118, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intragenic_L1s_repress_gene_expression_in_cancer_in_the_same_pattern____as_demethylated_normal_cells_/461118", "title"=>"Intragenic L1s repress gene expression in cancer in the same pattern\n as demethylated normal cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:18:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395822", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395831", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395835", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395841", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395852", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395859", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395866", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395875", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/395885"], "description"=>"<div><p>In human cancers, the methylation of long interspersed nuclear element -1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons is reduced. This occurs within the context of genome wide hypomethylation, and although it is common, its role is poorly understood. L1s are widely distributed both inside and outside of genes, intragenic and intergenic, respectively. Interestingly, the insertion of active full-length L1 sequences into host gene introns disrupts gene expression. Here, we evaluated if intragenic L1 hypomethylation influences their host gene expression in cancer. First, we extracted data from L1base (<a href=\"http://l1base.molgen.mpg.de\">http://l1base.molgen.mpg.de</a>), a database containing putatively active L1 insertions, and compared intragenic and intergenic L1 characters. We found that intragenic L1 sequences have been conserved across evolutionary time with respect to transcriptional activity and CpG dinucleotide sites for mammalian DNA methylation. Then, we compared regulated mRNA levels of cells from two different experiments available from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), a database repository of high throughput gene expression data, (<a href=\"http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo\">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo</a>) by chi-square. The odds ratio of down-regulated genes between demethylated normal bronchial epithelium and lung cancer was high (p<1E<sup>−27</sup>; OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 2.54–3.88), suggesting cancer genome wide hypomethylation down-regulating gene expression. Comprehensive analysis between L1 locations and gene expression showed that expression of genes containing L1s had a significantly higher likelihood to be repressed in cancer and hypomethylated normal cells. In contrast, many mRNAs derived from genes containing L1s are elevated in Argonaute 2 (AGO2 or EIF2C2)-depleted cells. Hypomethylated L1s increase L1 mRNA levels. Finally, we found that AGO2 targets intronic L1 pre-mRNA complexes and represses cancer genes. These findings represent one of the mechanisms of cancer genome wide hypomethylation altering gene expression. Hypomethylated intragenic L1s are a nuclear siRNA mediated <em>cis</em>-regulatory element that can repress genes. This epigenetic regulation of retrotransposons likely influences many aspects of genomic biology.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hypomethylation", "intragenic", "line-1", "represses", "transcription", "in", "cancer", "cells", "ago2"], "article_id"=>138197, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Hypomethylation_of_Intragenic_LINE_1_Represses_Transcription_in___Cancer_Cells_through_AGO2/138197", "title"=>"Hypomethylation of Intragenic LINE-1 Represses Transcription in\n Cancer Cells through AGO2", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 02:16:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791362"], "description"=>"<p>CU-DREAM 2×2 table of chi-square test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chi-square"], "article_id"=>461731, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CU_DREAM_2_215_2_table_of_chi_square_test_/461731", "title"=>"CU-DREAM 2×2 table of chi-square test.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:28:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/790626"], "description"=>"<p>A) L1s were divided into two classes, intragenic and intergenic L1s which\n are represented by blue and red arrows, respectively. B) The differences\n in structural characteristics between L1 groups were analyzed using the\n chi-square test, for categorical features and C) homoscedastic\n <i>t</i>-test for non-categorical features. D) 100\n p-values of chi-square tests of three classes of L1 sequence characters,\n the conserved sequences, the mutated sequences and the presence of CpG\n islands, that are found overrepresented or underrepresented in\n intragenic L1s were displayed, intragenic L1s>intergenic L1s and\n intergenic L1s>intragenic L1s, respectively. E) 18 p-values of\n t-tests of L1 characters that are overrepresented and underrepresented\n in intragenic L1s were shown in blue, intra>inter, and red color,\n inter>intra, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["l1s"], "article_id"=>460993, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intragenic_L1s_are_conserved_/460993", "title"=>"Intragenic L1s are conserved.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:16:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791254"], "description"=>"<p>The Chi-square test shows that the up-regulated genes in AGO2si and the\n down-regulated (or not up) genes in A and B) bladder carcinoma and C and\n D) gastric carcinoma are associated with L1. The test and control are of\n the same as in the Supporting <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3.12</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S3.7</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S3.8</a>. AGO2 represses expression of\n gene containing L1 in cancer. The chi-square test shows that the\n up-regulated genes in AGO2si and the down-regulated (or not up) genes in\n A) and B) bladder carcinoma and C) and D) gastric carcinoma are\n associated with L1. The test and control datasets are the same as\n present in the Supporting <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3.12</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S3.7</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S3.8</a>. E) The percentage of genes that\n was both up-regulated by AGO2sh and repressed in cancer cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["repress", "containing", "l1"], "article_id"=>461616, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AGO2_repress_expression_of_gene_containing_L1_in_cancer_/461616", "title"=>"AGO2 repress expression of gene containing L1 in cancer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:26:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791319"], "description"=>"<p>2×2 table of chi-square test to evaluate if intragenic L1s can\n influence host gene expression.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chi-square", "intragenic", "l1s", "can"], "article_id"=>461686, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_2_215_2_table_of_chi_square_test_to_evaluate_if_intragenic_L1s_can____influence_host_gene_expression_/461686", "title"=>"2×2 table of chi-square test to evaluate if intragenic L1s can\n influence host gene expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:28:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/790935"], "description"=>"<p>A) Genome wide L1 methylation and L1 RNA levels in WSU-HN cells. B)\n L1-EPHA3 methylation and L1-EPHA3 RNA levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hypomethylation", "increases", "l1"], "article_id"=>461302, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_L1_hypomethylation_increases_L1_RNA_/461302", "title"=>"L1 hypomethylation increases L1 RNA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:21:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/790867"], "description"=>"<p>A) 2×2 tables, p values and odds ratios and B) odds ratio for mRNAs\n that are under-expressed (“Down”) in lung cancer and\n Aza-dC-treated hBEC cells compared to non-Aza-dC-treated hBEC cells for\n (A and B) all genes, (B) genes with L1s (L1) and genes without L1s (No\n L1). B) The middle, top and bottom lines of each two-color box are the\n odds ratio and upper and lower 95% confidence interval (CI),\n respectively. C) 2×2 tables, p values and odds ratios and D)\n percentages of mRNAs that are under-expressed (“Down”) in\n both Aza-dC-treated cells and cancer cells compared with genes that are\n not downregulated in Aza-dC-treated cells or cancer, for genes with and\n without L1s (L1 and No L1). The corresponding 2×2 contingency\n tables for A) and B), and C) and D) are provided in Supporting <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table\n S4</a>, and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s007\" target=\"_blank\">S5</a>, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome", "hypomethylated", "intragenic", "l1s", "repress", "gene"], "article_id"=>461234, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demethylated_genome_and_hypomethylated_intragenic_L1s_repress_gene____expression_in_cancer_/461234", "title"=>"Demethylated genome and hypomethylated intragenic L1s repress gene\n expression in cancer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791014"], "description"=>"<p>A) 2×2 tables, p values and odds ratios and B) percentages of L1\n containing-genes that exhibit increased mRNA levels in AGO2sh-treated\n cells (“Up”) or are bound by AGO2 in AGO2IP\n (“Bound”), respectively. C) 2×2 tables, p values and\n odds ratios and D) odds ratios (95% CI) comparing HEK293T mRNA\n between up-regulated genes and not up-regulated genes upon AGO2sh and\n bound by AGO2 proteins for all genes (D), genes with L1s (L1) and genes\n without L1s (No L1), (C and D). D) The middle, top and bottom lines of\n each two-color box are the odds ratios and upper and lower 95%\n CIs, respectively. E) Levels of AGO2, EPHA3 mRNA and L1RNA in WSU-HN17\n AGO2si cells. Data represent means ± SEM. GSE records, GSM\n samples, type of <i>t</i>-test for A) and B) are given in\n Supporting <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>. 2×2 contingency\n tables for C) and D) are given in Supporting <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934#pone.0017934.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table\n S4</a>. F) Two scenarios of AGO2-target binding reflecting in\n different mRNA array results when using AGO2-IP and AGO2sh as probes.\n Negative result was expected from mRNA expression microarray using\n AGO2-IP RNA as probes, (“AGO2-IP + mRNA array”), when\n introns of pre-mRNA were targeted. However, positive result was expected\n from mRNA expression microarray using mRNA from AGO2sh as probes,\n (“AGO2sh + mRNA array”), regardless AGO2 targets\n pre-mRNA or mRNA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["l1", "rna", "mediate", "intragenic", "down-regulated", "expression", "containing"], "article_id"=>461375, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Chatchawit Aporntewan", "Chureerat Phokaew", "Jittima Piriyapongsa", "Chumpol Ngamphiw", "Chupong Ittiwut", "Sissades Tongsima", "Apiwat Mutirangura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AGO2_and_L1_RNA_mediate_intragenic_L1_down_regulated_gene_expression____in_gene_containing_L1s_/461375", "title"=>"AGO2 and L1 RNA mediate intragenic L1 down-regulated gene expression\n in gene containing L1s.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-15 00:22:55"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
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Relative Metric

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