Competition for Trophies Triggers Male Generosity
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{"title"=>"Competition for trophies triggers male generosity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Xiaofei Sophia", "last_name"=>"Pan", "scopus_author_id"=>"37075368100"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Houser", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007130840"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21494668", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018050", "sgr"=>"79953749751", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79953749751", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361565170"}, "id"=>"b2a8a9a5-814c-3e82-8892-e92f3ff7ca1f", "abstract"=>"Background. Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies) out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments.Principal competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. Principle Findings. Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males’ competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment Findings: Significance: differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. Significance. Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters — including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/competition-trophies-triggers-male-generosity", "reader_count"=>36, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785637"], "description"=>"<p>Level of significance for <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050#pone-0018050-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050#pone-0018050-t002\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050#pone-0018050-t003\" target=\"_blank\">3</a>: *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01.</p><p>Numbers of males/females are in parentheses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>456013, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xiaofei Sophia Pan", "Daniel Houser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_of_Cooperators_/456013", "title"=>"Percent of Cooperators.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-06 01:40:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785613"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in parentheses are at group level (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050#pone.0018050.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Text S3</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>455995, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xiaofei Sophia Pan", "Daniel Houser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Contribution_of_Free_riders_/455995", "title"=>"Mean Contribution of Free-riders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-06 01:39:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393482", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393502", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393537", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393575", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393606", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393636", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393660"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies) out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments.</p> <h3>Principal Findings</h3><p>Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards.</p> <h3>Significance</h3><p>Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters — including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trophies", "triggers", "generosity"], "article_id"=>137705, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xiaofei Sophia Pan", "Daniel Houser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Competition_for_Trophies_Triggers_Male_Generosity/137705", "title"=>"Competition for Trophies Triggers Male Generosity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-04-06 02:08:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785592"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in parentheses are at group level (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050#pone.0018050.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Text S3</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>455971, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xiaofei Sophia Pan", "Daniel Houser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Contribution_of_Cooperators_/455971", "title"=>"Mean Contribution of Cooperators.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-06 01:39:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785298"], "description"=>"<p>Cooperation is highest in Mug both by a) average contribution or b) frequency of the full contribution. a. The numbers in parentheses indicate mean contribution (over 10 periods) for that treatment. Contributions are significantly higher in <i>Mug</i> (N = 14 groups) compared to both <i>Ice-cream</i> (N = 12 groups, z = 2.675, P = 0.008) and <i>Baseline</i> (N = 12 groups, z = −1.800, P = 0.072). b. The numbers in parentheses indicate mean frequency (over 10 periods) of full contributions in that treatment. In the <i>Mug</i> treatment, most subjects contributed their full endowment (54%), significantly more than in both <i>Baseline</i> (35%, N = 12 groups, z = −1.987, P = 0.047) and <i>Ice-cream</i> (23%, z = 2.734, P = 0.006).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["goods", "10", "periods"], "article_id"=>455672, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xiaofei Sophia Pan", "Daniel Houser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contributions_to_the_public_goods_over_10_periods_across_treatments_/455672", "title"=>"Contributions to the public goods over 10 periods across treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-06 01:34:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785247"], "description"=>"<p>The Fig. describes males' and females' WTP for the ICES Mug (filled black bars), the Haagen-Dazs Ice-cream (open bars), and the differences between them (filled grey bars). WTPs are statistically identical between males and females for both the mug (z = 1.593, P = 0.111) and the Ice-cream bar (z = 1.418, P = 0.156). WTPs are also statistically identical within the same gender for the two items (Wilcoxson signed-rank test: for male, z = 0.049, P = 0.961; for female, z = 0.956, P = 0.339, two-tailed). The differences in WTP for Mug and Ice-cream are also statistically identical between males and females (z = 0.727, P = 0.467).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ices", "mug", "haagen-dazs"], "article_id"=>455620, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xiaofei Sophia Pan", "Daniel Houser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Willingness_to_pay_WTP_for_ICES_Mug_and_Haagen_Dazs_Ice_cream_/455620", "title"=>"Willingness-to-pay (WTP) for ICES Mug and Haagen-Dazs Ice-cream.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-06 01:33:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785530"], "description"=>"<p>Each panel describes the percent of males and females who won different numbers of stars (tying allowed) in <i>Mug</i> or <i>Ice-cream</i>. a. Percent of males (filled bars, N = 40) and females (open bars, N = 16) winning 0, 1–4 or 5–10 stars in <i>Mug</i>. Significantly more males than females won at least one star, or at least five stars over 10 periods. b. Percent of males (filled bars, N = 27) and females (open bars, N = 21) winning 0, 1–4, or 5–10 stars in <i>Ice-cream</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stars", "won"], "article_id"=>455903, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Xiaofei Sophia Pan", "Daniel Houser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018050.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_stars_won_in_Mug_and_Ice_cream_treatments_/455903", "title"=>"Number of stars won in <i>Mug</i> and <i>Ice-cream</i> treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-06 01:38:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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