Motor Cortex Representation of the Upper-Limb in Individuals Born without a Hand
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{"title"=>"Motor cortex representation of the upper-limb in individuals born without a hand", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Karen T.", "last_name"=>"Reilly", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004723084"}, {"first_name"=>"Angela", "last_name"=>"Sirigu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005604878"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79954528806", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018100", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361607524", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21494663", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79954528806"}, "id"=>"e1593b62-b3e3-321e-ad2a-1e42d5e934a9", "abstract"=>"The body schema is an action-related representation of the body that arises from activity in a network of multiple brain areas. While it was initially thought that the body schema developed with experience, the existence of phantom limbs in individuals born without a limb (amelics) led to the suggestion that it was innate. The problem with this idea, however, is that the vast majority of amelics do not report the presence of a phantom limb. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) of traumatic amputees can evoke movement sensations in the phantom, suggesting that traumatic amputation does not delete movement representations of the missing hand. Given this, we asked whether the absence of a phantom limb in the majority of amelics means that the motor cortex does not contain a cortical representation of the missing limb, or whether it is present but has been deactivated by the lack of sensorimotor experience. In four upper-limb amelic subjects we directly stimulated the arm/hand region of M1 to see 1) whether we could evoke phantom sensations, and 2) whether muscle representations in the two cortices were organised asymmetrically. TMS applied over the motor cortex contralateral to the missing limb evoked contractions in stump muscles but did not evoke phantom movement sensations. The location and extent of muscle maps varied between hemispheres but did not reveal any systematic asymmetries. In contrast, forearm muscle thresholds were always higher for the missing limb side. We suggest that phantom movement sensations reported by some upper limb amelics are mostly driven by vision and not by the persistence of motor commands to the missing limb within the sensorimotor cortex. We propose that prewired movement representations of a limb need the experience of movement to be expressed within the primary motor cortex.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/motor-cortex-representation-upperlimb-individuals-born-without-hand", "reader_count"=>75, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>23, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>15, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>7}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>23}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>15}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "China"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785663"], "description"=>"<p>There were no systematic latency differences between the two sides of the body, despite the absence of the majority of the forearm and all of the hand muscles on the side with the missing hand. Note that the subject represented by the square and the subject represented by the circle both had latencies of 19 ms on the intact and amputated sides – the overlapping of these two points explains why the FDS latencies for the square are not visible (triangle = S1, square = S2; circle = S3, diamond = S4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mep", "latency", "bb", "fds", "sides", "utero"], "article_id"=>456033, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Karen T. Reilly", "Angela Sirigu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018100.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_MEP_latency_for_BB_open_symbols_and_FDS_closed_symbols_for_the_missing_limb_and_intact_sides_of_each_subject_blue_8202_8202_agenesics_orange_8202_8202_in_utero_amputees_/456033", "title"=>"Average MEP latency for BB (open symbols) and FDS (closed symbols) for the missing limb and intact sides of each subject (blue = agenesics; orange = in utero amputees).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785750"], "description"=>"<p>Subject Characteristics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>456126, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Karen T. Reilly", "Angela Sirigu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018100.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subject_Characteristics_/456126", "title"=>"Subject Characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:23:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785236"], "description"=>"<p>For all four subjects the resting motor thresholds for the stump muscle FDS were higher on the missing limb side than the intact side. The BB thresholds showed the opposite pattern for two subjects and were equivalent on both sides for the other two subjects. (triangle = S1, square = S2; circle = S3, diamond = S4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["thresholds", "bb", "fds", "sides", "utero"], "article_id"=>455604, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Karen T. Reilly", "Angela Sirigu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018100.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Resting_motor_thresholds_for_BB_open_symbols_and_FDS_filled_symbols_on_the_missing_and_intact_limb_sides_of_each_subject_blue_8202_8202_agenesics_orange_8202_8202_in_utero_amputees_/455604", "title"=>"Resting motor thresholds for BB (open symbols) and FDS (filled symbols) on the missing and intact limb sides of each subject (blue = agenesics; orange = in utero amputees).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:20:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785575"], "description"=>"<p>In three of the four subjects, the CoG of the stump muscle FDS was more medial on the missing limb side than the intact side. Similarly, three of the four subjects had a BB representation that was more medial on the missing limb side than the intact side (triangle = S1, square = S2; circle = S3, diamond = S4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["centre", "bb", "fds", "maps", "midline", "sides", "utero"], "article_id"=>455941, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Karen T. Reilly", "Angela Sirigu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018100.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distance_of_Centre_of_Gravity_for_BB_open_symbols_and_FDS_filled_symbols_maps_from_the_midline_on_the_missing_limb_and_intact_sides_of_each_subject_blue_8202_8202_agenesics_orange_8202_8202_in_utero_amputees_/455941", "title"=>"Distance of Centre of Gravity for BB (open symbols) and FDS (filled symbols) maps from the midline on the missing limb and intact sides of each subject (blue = agenesics; orange = in utero amputees).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:22:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785810"], "description"=>"<p>Map area (number of stimulated sites with a mean MEP amplitude ≥0.05 mV).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimulated", "sites", "mep", "amplitude"], "article_id"=>456183, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Karen T. Reilly", "Angela Sirigu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018100.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_area_number_of_stimulated_sites_with_a_mean_MEP_amplitude_8805_0_05_mV_/456183", "title"=>"Map area (number of stimulated sites with a mean MEP amplitude ≥0.05 mV).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:24:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785777"], "description"=>"<p>Stimulation Intensities (% of maximal stimulator output) used to map each muscle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intensities", "maximal", "stimulator"], "article_id"=>456151, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Karen T. Reilly", "Angela Sirigu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018100.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stimulation_Intensities_of_maximal_stimulator_output_used_to_map_each_muscle_/456151", "title"=>"Stimulation Intensities (% of maximal stimulator output) used to map each muscle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:24:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785406"], "description"=>"<p>For all four subjects the points stimulated on the hemisphere contralateral to the missing limb largely covered the “probable” hand area in this hemisphere. Sites at which stimulation produced MEPs of at least 10% of the maximum average MEP amplitude are marked in blue for the biceps, red for the FDS, and grey points represent sites that were stimulated but did not evoke MEPs in either biceps or FDS. On the interpolated maps the transition between dark and light blue corresponds to approximately 10% of the maximum average MEP amplitude. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018100#pone-0018100-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> shows the percentage of Maximum Stimulator Output used to construct each map.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intrinsic", "points", "stimulated", "hemisphere", "contralateral"], "article_id"=>455774, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Karen T. Reilly", "Angela Sirigu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018100.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_the_map_of_an_intrinsic_hand_muscle_FDI_and_points_stimulated_on_the_hemisphere_contralateral_to_the_missing_limb_/455774", "title"=>"Relationship between the map of an intrinsic hand muscle (FDI) and points stimulated on the hemisphere contralateral to the missing limb.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:21:57"}

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Relative Metric

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