Moral Concepts Set Decision Strategies to Abstract Values
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{"title"=>"Moral concepts set decision strategies to abstract values", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Svenja", "last_name"=>"Caspers", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193223335"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan", "last_name"=>"Heim", "scopus_author_id"=>"9844971900"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc G.", "last_name"=>"Lucas", "scopus_author_id"=>"37120569900"}, {"first_name"=>"Egon", "last_name"=>"Stephan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56343264100"}, {"first_name"=>"Lorenz", "last_name"=>"Fischer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7203003659"}, {"first_name"=>"Katrin", "last_name"=>"Amunts", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701836721"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl", "last_name"=>"Zilles", "scopus_author_id"=>"55871516700"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79953661478", "pui"=>"361550360", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018451", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"79953661478", "pmid"=>"21483767"}, "id"=>"b154f4b3-6dab-3f15-9412-dd91a8d4aca2", "abstract"=>"Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system applied a \"balancing and weighing\" strategy, recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex. Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric) value preferences applied a \"fight-and-flight\" strategy by recruiting the left amygdala. Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles. These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological and economic research as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/moral-concepts-set-decision-strategies-abstract-values", "reader_count"=>77, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Psychology"=>35, "Social Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>35}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>4, "China"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>2, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786832"], "description"=>"<p>All data are given as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Scores on the intelligence quotient (IQ) were derived from the culture-free test CFT-20 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Wei1\" target=\"_blank\">[83]</a>, scores on the five personality dimensions were derived from the NEO-FFI <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Borkenau1\" target=\"_blank\">[84]</a>. Testing for statistical significance was performed using a MANCOVA (age, IQ), and discriminant analysis (NEO-FFI). Significant results are indicated by an asterisk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["groups", "col", "ind"], "article_id"=>457197, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Svenja Caspers", "Stefan Heim", "Marc G. Lucas", "Egon Stephan", "Lorenz Fischer", "Katrin Amunts", "Karl Zilles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_groups_COL_and_IND_with_regard_to_age_sex_and_personality_structure_/457197", "title"=>"Characteristics of groups COL and IND with regard to age, sex, and personality structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:29:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786798"], "description"=>"<p>The stimulus words in the table are given as the original German word (in single quotation marks) and as the English translation beneath (in italics). Words and their ordering are based on the open systems theory of values <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Loevinger1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Graves1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a> and related theories <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Rokeach1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Maslow1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["words", "fmri", "paradigm"], "article_id"=>457160, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Svenja Caspers", "Stefan Heim", "Marc G. Lucas", "Egon Stephan", "Lorenz Fischer", "Katrin Amunts", "Karl Zilles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stimulus_words_used_for_the_fMRI_paradigm_six_categories_six_words_each_/457160", "title"=>"Stimulus words used for the fMRI paradigm (six categories, six words each).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:29:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786354"], "description"=>"<p>Box plots show mean scaled reaction times with percentiles for the two choice types choice for a word in accordance with one's own value profile (choice own), and choice for a word not in accordance with the own value profile (choice other). ANOVA (<i>P</i><0.0001) revealed a significant effect of factor ‘choice type’ as marked by the asterisk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scaled", "times"], "article_id"=>456725, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Svenja Caspers", "Stefan Heim", "Marc G. Lucas", "Egon Stephan", "Lorenz Fischer", "Katrin Amunts", "Karl Zilles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_statistical_analysis_of_scaled_reaction_times_of_different_trial_types_/456725", "title"=>"Results of the statistical analysis of scaled reaction times of different trial types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:27:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786213"], "description"=>"<p>Bar graphs show for each of the six categories the mean count of choices made by the subjects in the MR scanner, averaged over the two groups (Individualists: grey bars, Collectivists: black bars) derived from the two-step cluster-analysis. Error bars provide the standard deviation. Significant differences between groups are indicated by asterisks (ANOVA for interaction between factor ‘group’ and ‘value orientation of stimulus’, <i>P</i><0.001, <i>df</i>  = 1, individual <i>F</i>-values within figure).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "science policy", "neuroscience", "neurological disorders"], "article_id"=>456579, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Svenja Caspers", "Stefan Heim", "Marc G. Lucas", "Egon Stephan", "Lorenz Fischer", "Katrin Amunts", "Karl Zilles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Categories_of_values_as_obtained_from_the_value_theories_/456579", "title"=>"Categories of values as obtained from the value theories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:26:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786588"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Box plots showing mean scaled reaction times with percentiles for the four trial types positive conflict (pos conf), negative conflict (neg conf), no conflict – positive decision (no conf pos), and no conflict – negative decision (no conf neg). ANOVA (<i>P</i><0.0001) revealed a significant effect of factor ‘trial type’. Asterisks mark those pairwise comparisons which proved to be significant during consecutive multiple comparison testing. (B) Dot plots showing for trial type ‘pos conf’ (left panel, black bar) and ‘no conf neg’ (right panel, black bar) that their reaction times were significantly different from trials ‘neg conf’ and ‘no conf pos’ (red bars), but not from each other (grey bar). Bars mark the standard error of each estimated mean scaled reaction time (marked as dots).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scaled", "times"], "article_id"=>456957, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Svenja Caspers", "Stefan Heim", "Marc G. Lucas", "Egon Stephan", "Lorenz Fischer", "Katrin Amunts", "Karl Zilles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_statistical_analysis_of_scaled_reaction_times_of_different_trial_types_/456957", "title"=>"Results of the statistical analysis of scaled reaction times of different trial types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:28:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786702"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sagittal and horizontal section of the MNI single subject template, showing significant activation (<i>p<sub>uncorr</sub></i><0.001, extent threshold <i>k</i> = 150) within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at the border to the frontal pole region (DLPFC (BA46/BA10), cluster size: 168 voxels, MNI coordinates of peak activity: <i>x</i> = −27, <i>y</i> = 56, <i>z</i> = 15), and the medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG, cluster size: 315 voxels, maximum 1, MNI coordinates of peak activity: <i>x</i> = 6, <i>y</i> = 35, <i>z</i> = 36) at the border to the middle cingulate cortex (MCC (BA24 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Caspers2\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>), maximum 2, MNI coordinates of peak activity: <i>x</i> = 2, <i>y</i> = 45, <i>z</i> = 30). Bar plots beneath the sections show the parameter estimates (i.e. the strength of the BOLD-effect for each condition as measured during fMRI, revealing if and to what degree the each condition contributed to the observed activation) as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone-0018451-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2.</a> (B) ROI-based analysis in the same brain regions as in A, beneath the respective section of A. The MCC/mSFG cluster was separated for this analysis by applying a significance threshold of <i>p<sub>uncorr</sub></i><0.0005 to the statistical map of A, allowing for a separate extraction of parameter estimates at each maximum individually. Each graph shows the parameter estimates of activations for the two incongruent conditions (DILEMMA, WORSE-CHOICE). Error bars provide the standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["activation", "roi-based", "non-selected"], "article_id"=>457067, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Svenja Caspers", "Stefan Heim", "Marc G. Lucas", "Egon Stephan", "Lorenz Fischer", "Katrin Amunts", "Karl Zilles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significant_brain_activation_and_consecutive_ROI_based_analysis_for_non_selected_words_/457067", "title"=>"Significant brain activation and consecutive ROI-based analysis for non-selected words.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:29:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786453"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Main effect COL > IND: Coronal and sagittal sections of the MNI single subject template, showing significant activation (<i>p</i><0.05 cluster-level corrected, extent threshold <i>k</i> = 200 voxels), labelled in red) within left rostral inferior parietal lobule (PFt) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Caspers1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Caspers2\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a> and intraparietal sulcus (hIP1, hIP2) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Choi1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>, cluster size: 833 voxels, <i>T<sub>210</sub></i> = 4.45, peak MNI coordinates: <i>x</i> = −46, <i>y</i> = −32, <i>z</i> = 33); right middle cingulate cortex (MCC, BA24) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-PalomeroGallagher1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a> at the border to medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), cluster size: 285 voxels, <i>T<sub>210</sub></i> = 4.16, peak MNI coordinates: <i>x</i> = 3, <i>y</i> = 16, <i>z</i> = 33; right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), cluster size: 577 voxels, <i>T<sub>210</sub></i> = 4.16, peak MNI coordinates: <i>x</i> = 39, <i>y</i> = 26, <i>z</i> = 42. (B) Main effect IND > COL: Coronal section of the MNI single subject template, showing significant activation (<i>p<sub>uncorr</sub></i><sub>.</sub> <0.001, extent threshold <i>k</i> = 10, labelled in red) within the superficial part of the left amygdala (SF <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Amunts1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>), cluster size: 61 voxels, <i>T<sub>210</sub></i> = 4.02, peak MNI coordinates: <i>x</i> = −20, <i>y</i> = −2, <i>z</i> = −21. For reading convenience, surrounding areas of the Jülich-Düsseldorf cytoarchitectonic atlas <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Zilles1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a> as displayed by the SPM anatomy toolbox <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451#pone.0018451-Eickhoff1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a> are labelled in yellow whereas areas found to be active in the present study are labelled in red. Yellow labelled area codes are as follows: hIP1/hIP2: areas of anterior intraparietal sulcus, M1: primary motor cortex, area PF: area of rostral inferior parietal lobule, SI: primary somatosensory cortex, SII: secondary somatosensory cortex, SPL: superior parietal lobule, area 6: premotor cortex. Bar plots beneath (for A) and beside (for B) each section show the parameter estimates (i.e. the strength of the BOLD-effect for each condition as measured during fMRI, revealing if and to what degree the each condition contributed to the observed activation) at peak MNI coordinates for collectivists (COL; green), and individualists (IND; red) when choosing either individualistic (V<sub>IND</sub>) or collectivistic values (V<sub>COL</sub>). Error bars provide the standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["activations"], "article_id"=>456824, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Svenja Caspers", "Stefan Heim", "Marc G. Lucas", "Egon Stephan", "Lorenz Fischer", "Katrin Amunts", "Karl Zilles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018451.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significant_brain_activations_for_the_main_effects_of_factor_8216_group_8217_/456824", "title"=>"Significant brain activations for the main effects of factor ‘group’.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:27:42"}

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