The Immune Cellular Effectors of Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium vulgare: Meeting with Their Invaders, Wolbachia
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{"title"=>"The immune cellular effectors of terrestrial isopod armadillidium vulgare: Meeting with their invaders, wolbachia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Frédéric", "last_name"=>"Chevalier", "scopus_author_id"=>"37030617900"}, {"first_name"=>"Juline", "last_name"=>"Herbinière-Gaboreau", "scopus_author_id"=>"37107762000"}, {"first_name"=>"Joanne", "last_name"=>"Bertaux", "scopus_author_id"=>"8949797600"}, {"first_name"=>"Maryline", "last_name"=>"Raimond", "scopus_author_id"=>"23493712400"}, {"first_name"=>"Franck", "last_name"=>"Morel", "scopus_author_id"=>"56273288900"}, {"first_name"=>"Didier", "last_name"=>"Bouchon", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701400506"}, {"first_name"=>"Pierre", "last_name"=>"Grève", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003276286"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine", "last_name"=>"Braquart-Varnier", "scopus_author_id"=>"8846889700"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79955382658", "sgr"=>"79955382658", "pui"=>"361671413", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21533137", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018531"}, "id"=>"8e42c2b0-7ab5-36be-ac5c-6baaa74df422", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Most of crustacean immune responses are well described for the aquatic forms whereas almost nothing is known for the isopods that evolved a terrestrial lifestyle. The latter are also infected at a high prevalence with Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium which affects the host immune system, possibly to improve its transmission. In contrast with insect models, the isopod Armadillidium vulgare is known to harbor Wolbachia inside the haemocytes.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In A. vulgare we characterized three haemocyte types (TEM, flow cytometry): the hyaline and semi-granular haemocytes were phagocytes, while semi-granular and granular haemocytes performed encapsulation. They were produced in the haematopoietic organs, from central stem cells, maturing as they moved toward the edge (TEM). In infected individuals, live Wolbachia (FISH) colonized 38% of the haemocytes but with low, variable densities (6.45±0.46 Wolbachia on average). So far they were not found in hyaline haemocytes (TEM). The haematopoietic organs contained 7.6±0.7×10(3)Wolbachia, both in stem cells and differentiating cells (FISH). While infected and uninfected one-year-old individuals had the same haemocyte density, in infected animals the proportion of granular haemocytes in particular decreased by one third (flow cytometry, Pearson's test = 12 822.98, df = 2, p<0.001).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The characteristics of the isopod immune system fell within the range of those known from aquatic crustaceans. The colonization of the haemocytes by Wolbachia seemed to stand from the haematopoietic organs, which may act as a reservoir to discharge Wolbachia in the haemolymph, a known route for horizontal transfer. Wolbachia infection did not affect the haemocyte density, but the quantity of granular haemocytes decreased by one third. This may account for the reduced prophenoloxidase activity observed previously in these animals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/immune-cellular-effectors-terrestrial-isopod-armadillidium-vulgare-meeting-invaders-wolbachia", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Algeria"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782108"], "description"=>"<p>The flow cytometry FSC <i>vs.</i> SSC dotplot shows two populations: P1 and P2. After separation on a Percoll gradient, TEM confirmed that P1 contained few hyaline (*) and semi-granular haemocytes (**) and P2 only granular haemocytes. P1 and P2 ellipses drawn manually.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["circulating", "haemocyte"], "article_id"=>452478, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Frédéric Chevalier", "Juline Herbinière-Gaboreau", "Joanne Bertaux", "Maryline Raimond", "Franck Morel", "Didier Bouchon", "Pierre Grève", "Christine Braquart-Varnier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018531.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Separation_of_circulating_haemocyte_populations_/452478", "title"=>"Separation of circulating haemocyte populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:03:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782470"], "description"=>"<p>In the haematopoietic organ (<b>A</b>, transversal section and schematic layout), the compactness of the tissue and the morphology of the cells allowed discriminating between the central area (a, not visible here but see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018531#pone-0018531-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 7C</a>), and the internal (b), central (c) and external (d) cortex. The central area contained stem cells (dividing, <b>B</b>) isolated and steeped in matrix (<b>C</b>, <b>D</b>). The granules appeared in the haemocytes from the central cortex on, though the granular types could not be distinguished (<b>E</b>). The external cortex contained mostly cells with granules (<b>F</b>). A diapedesis figure (arrowhead) across the basal membrane (*) indicated a probable route for haemocyte release from the external cortex (**) into the haemolymph (<b>G</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["haematopoietic"], "article_id"=>452841, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Frédéric Chevalier", "Juline Herbinière-Gaboreau", "Joanne Bertaux", "Maryline Raimond", "Franck Morel", "Didier Bouchon", "Pierre Grève", "Christine Braquart-Varnier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018531.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Layout_of_the_haematopoietic_organ_TEM_/452841", "title"=>"Layout of the haematopoietic organ (TEM).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:05:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782340"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>: Semi-granular haemocytes were being recruited at the periphery of the capsule. Some haemocytes in the capsule had lost nucleus and organelles (arrowhead). r: resin side of the capsule, e: external side of the capsule, n: nucleus, g: granules, m: mitochondria. <b>B</b>: The capsule was made of several layers of haemocytes, some of them being in an apoptotic stage (arrow). Melanin particles (mp) were released on the resin side.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["encapsulated", "haemocytes"], "article_id"=>452706, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Frédéric Chevalier", "Juline Herbinière-Gaboreau", "Joanne Bertaux", "Maryline Raimond", "Franck Morel", "Didier Bouchon", "Pierre Grève", "Christine Braquart-Varnier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018531.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Resin_bit_encapsulated_by_haemocytes_TEM_/452706", "title"=>"Resin bit encapsulated by haemocytes (TEM).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:05:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782203"], "description"=>"<p>Ink particles were observed in lysosomes (arrowhead) from hyaline (<b>A</b>) and semi-granular haemocyte (<b>B</b>). n: nucleus, arrowhead: ink particles in a lysosome, asterisk: primary endosome.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ink", "particles", "lysosomes", "haemocytes"], "article_id"=>452569, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Frédéric Chevalier", "Juline Herbinière-Gaboreau", "Joanne Bertaux", "Maryline Raimond", "Franck Morel", "Didier Bouchon", "Pierre Grève", "Christine Braquart-Varnier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018531.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phagocyted_ink_particles_within_lysosomes_in_haemocytes_TEM_/452569", "title"=>"Phagocyted ink particles within lysosomes in haemocytes (TEM).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:04:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782716"], "description"=>"<p>In infected animals, <i>Wolbachia</i> (in red) colonized many haemocytes (<b>A</b>, <b>B</b>) and the central area (*) as well as the cortex (**) of the haematopoietic organ (<b>C</b>), although groups of cells remained uncolonized (Arrowheads, <b>D</b>–<b>F</b>). The control uninfected animals presented only rare <i>Wolbachia</i>-like artefacts (haemocytes, <b>G–H</b>, haematopoietic organ, <b>I</b>). <b>A</b>–<b>C, G–H</b>: red: <i>Wolbachia</i>, green: Actin; blue: Nuclei. <b>A</b>, <b>B</b>, <b>G</b>, <b>H</b>: average intensity Z-projections. <b>B</b> and <b>H</b>: Close-ups. <b>D</b>–<b>F</b>: 3D analysis (ImageJ 3D viewer) of image <b>C</b>. <b>D</b>: tilted volume rendering of <i>Wolbachia</i> (red) and the nuclei (turquoise) in the central area extracted from the Z-stack. <b>E</b> and <b>F</b>: volume rendering of <i>Wolbachia</i> (grey-scale) from the whole haematopoietic organ. <b>E</b>: front view corresponding to image <b>C</b>, <b>F</b>: tilted view (180°).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detection", "circulating", "haemocytes", "haematopoietic"], "article_id"=>453078, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Frédéric Chevalier", "Juline Herbinière-Gaboreau", "Joanne Bertaux", "Maryline Raimond", "Franck Morel", "Didier Bouchon", "Pierre Grève", "Christine Braquart-Varnier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018531.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FISH_detection_of_Wolbachia_in_circulating_haemocytes_and_haematopoietic_organs_/453078", "title"=>"FISH detection of <i>Wolbachia</i> in circulating haemocytes and haematopoietic organs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:07:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782597"], "description"=>"<p><i>Wolbachia</i> (*) in a non-differentiated cell in an haematopoietic organ (<b>A</b>) and in a semi-granular haemocyte (<b>B</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detection", "haematopoietic", "organs", "circulating"], "article_id"=>452964, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Frédéric Chevalier", "Juline Herbinière-Gaboreau", "Joanne Bertaux", "Maryline Raimond", "Franck Morel", "Didier Bouchon", "Pierre Grève", "Christine Braquart-Varnier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018531.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TEM_detection_of_Wolbachia_in_haematopoietic_organs_and_circulating_haemocytes_/452964", "title"=>"TEM detection of <i>Wolbachia</i> in haematopoietic organs and circulating haemocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782013"], "description"=>"<p>The hyaline type (<b>A</b>) did not contain granules, contrary to the semi-granular (<b>B</b>) and granular (<b>C</b>) types. n: nucleus, cy: cytoplasm, g: granules, m: mitochondria, ga: Golgi apparatus, rer: rough endoplasmic reticulum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characterization", "haemocyte"], "article_id"=>452370, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Frédéric Chevalier", "Juline Herbinière-Gaboreau", "Joanne Bertaux", "Maryline Raimond", "Franck Morel", "Didier Bouchon", "Pierre Grève", "Christine Braquart-Varnier"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018531.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TEM_characterization_of_three_haemocyte_types_/452370", "title"=>"TEM characterization of three haemocyte types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:03:04"}

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Relative Metric

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