Bonobos Extract Meaning from Call Sequences
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Bonobos extract meaning from call sequences", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zanna", "last_name"=>"Clay", "scopus_author_id"=>"26429175000"}, {"first_name"=>"Klaus", "last_name"=>"Zuberbühler", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701504799"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361717740", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018786", "sgr"=>"79955699567", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"21556149", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79955699567"}, "id"=>"14f28187-7676-3f81-8854-4931382b81de", "abstract"=>"Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bonobos-extract-meaning-call-sequences", "reader_count"=>123, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>62, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>24, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Linguistics"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>24}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>62}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Germany"=>3, "Malta"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79955699567"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79955699567?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79955699567&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79955699567&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79955699567", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:79955699567", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-79955699567", "dc:title"=>"Bonobos extract meaning from call sequences", "dc:creator"=>"Clay Z.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"6", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"4", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-05-11", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018786", "citedby-count"=>"51", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Twycross Zoo", "affiliation-city"=>"Atherstone", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of St Andrews", "affiliation-city"=>"St. Andrews", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21556149", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e18786", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0018786", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"104", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"569"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"287"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"149"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390937", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390979", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391039", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391092", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391137", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391183", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391219", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391235", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391246"], "description"=>"<div><p>Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bonobos", "extract", "sequences"], "article_id"=>137228, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zanna Clay", "Klaus Zuberbühler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bonobos_Extract_Meaning_from_Call_Sequences/137228", "title"=>"Bonobos Extract Meaning from Call Sequences", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-04-27 02:00:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/779712"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic layout of the bonobo facility at Twycross Zoo, including location of playback equipment and artificial food sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["layout", "bonobo", "twycross", "playback"], "article_id"=>450085, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zanna Clay", "Klaus Zuberbühler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_layout_of_the_bonobo_facility_at_Twycross_Zoo_including_location_of_playback_equipment_and_artificial_food_sites_/450085", "title"=>"Schematic layout of the bonobo facility at Twycross Zoo, including location of playback equipment and artificial food sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-27 00:01:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/779808"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Site of first entry expressed as a median proportion of the individual's median choices per condition; (b) median number of visits per trial; (c) median time spent foraging following playback (s). Box plots illustrate medians, inter-quartile ranges, and highest and lowest values, excluding outliers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "foraging", "responses", "bonobos", "playbacks", "food-associated", "calls"], "article_id"=>450171, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zanna Clay", "Klaus Zuberbühler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Box_plots_indicating_foraging_responses_of_bonobos_N_8202_8202_4_following_playbacks_of_food_associated_calls_given_to_high_value_kiwi_or_low_value_apple_foods_/450171", "title"=>"Box plots indicating foraging responses of bonobos (N = 4) following playbacks of food-associated calls given to high value (kiwi) or low value (apple) foods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-27 00:02:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/779935"], "description"=>"<p>Calls were assigned a cardinal score based on how frequently they were produced in response to high vs. low value food (e.g. barks were six times more frequent to high than low preference foods, so that: B = 6.00, P = 1.86, PY = 0.52, Y = 0.12). The relationship between foraging responses and stimuli scores are indicated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786#pone-0018786-t003\" target=\"_blank\">table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["encountered", "cumulative", "stimuli"], "article_id"=>450307, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zanna Clay", "Klaus Zuberbühler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scatter_plot_showing_the_relationship_between_the_food_type_encountered_highly_preferred_8202_8202_kiwi_less_preferred_8202_8202_apple_and_the_cumulative_value_of_the_stimuli_sequence_/450307", "title"=>"Scatter plot showing the relationship between the food type encountered (highly preferred = kiwi, less preferred = apple) and the cumulative value of the stimuli sequence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-27 00:05:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/780081"], "description"=>"<p>(a) High value sequence originally given to kiwi consisting of bark/peep/bark/peep and (b) low value sequence originally given to apple consisting of peep-yelp/peep-yelp/yelp/yelp. Recordings of the corresponding call sequences are available as <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786#pone.0018786.s007\" target=\"_blank\">audio S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786#pone.0018786.s008\" target=\"_blank\">audio S2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["illustrations", "playback"], "article_id"=>450457, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zanna Clay", "Klaus Zuberbühler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrographic_illustrations_of_two_playback_stimuli_/450457", "title"=>"Spectrographic illustrations of two playback stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-27 00:07:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/780141"], "description"=>"<p>Composition of the two bonobo subgroups at Twycross Zoo (UK) in April 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bonobo", "subgroups", "twycross", "zoo", "april"], "article_id"=>450510, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zanna Clay", "Klaus Zuberbühler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composition_of_the_two_bonobo_subgroups_at_Twycross_Zoo_UK_in_April_2009_/450510", "title"=>"Composition of the two bonobo subgroups at Twycross Zoo (UK) in April 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-27 00:08:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/780187"], "description"=>"<p>The values are calculated for the first four calls only; with mean values produced by three individuals in subgroup A (KK, KT, BK) and three other individuals in subgroup B (DT, CK, KH). Results mirror what was previously described from a larger data set from two groups in San Diego (31) showing that although all calls were produced at least once in the high and low contexts, their relative frequency varies with food preference. Barks are produced most typically in response to high value foods; peeps occur often to high value foods, peep-yelps are produced more often to medium-lower value foods, while yelps were typically produced the lower value foods. Grunts were rarely produced in natural call sequences at Twycross, with only 2 individuals producing them, both for low value foods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["food-related", "types", "sequences", "low-value", "foods", "bonobos", "twycross", "zoo", "corresponding", "playback"], "article_id"=>450546, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zanna Clay", "Klaus Zuberbühler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_frequency_of_food_related_call_types_within_natural_call_sequences_given_to_high_and_low_value_foods_by_bonobos_at_Twycross_Zoo_and_the_corresponding_playback_stimuli_/450546", "title"=>"Relative frequency of food-related call types within natural call sequences given to high and low-value foods by bonobos at Twycross Zoo and the corresponding playback stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-27 00:09:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/780208"], "description"=>"<p>Receiver foraging effort represents mean time spent foraging at per individual. Cells marked in bold represent 'response errors' where individuals exerted more foraging effort in the incongruent field. Details of how cumulative values were calculated are found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786#pone-0018786-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>. (B = bark, P = peep, PY = peep yelp, Y = yelp). CVO: Cumulative value (ordinal); CVC: Cumulative value (cardinal); Kiwi bias: Relative bias towards the kiwi field.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "resulting", "behavioural", "responses"], "article_id"=>450578, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zanna Clay", "Klaus Zuberbühler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018786.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composition_of_different_call_stimuli_and_resulting_behavioural_responses_in_receivers_/450578", "title"=>"Composition of different call stimuli and resulting behavioural responses in receivers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-27 00:09:38"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"12", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"12", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"9", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"15", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"25", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"18", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"18", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[316, 571, 699, 812, 915, 1008, 1095, 1180, 1255, 1319, 1393, 1461, 1528, 1595, 1662, 1729, 1802, 1868, 1937, 1997, 2062, 2130, 2192, 2254, 2324, 2386, 2450, 2510, 2579, 2642, 2716, 2778, 2842, 2908, 2979, 3042, 3095]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[324, 535, 647, 742, 830, 933, 1003, 1085, 1147, 1194, 1266, 1323, 1378, 1433, 1492, 1557, 1621, 1684, 1752, 1812, 1870, 1923, 1985, 2037, 2101, 2158, 2216, 2267, 2335, 2391, 2455, 2529, 2595, 2658, 2710, 2756, 2813]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 547, 667, 770, 875, 974, 1062, 1140, 1210, 1276, 1344, 1408, 1473, 1534, 1602, 1665, 1732, 1800, 1863, 1920, 1984, 2048, 2099, 2161, 2222, 2285, 2341, 2404, 2473, 2528, 2595, 2650, 2713, 2772, 2835, 2886, 2938]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts