Eco-Evolutionary Trophic Dynamics: Loss of Top Predators Drives Trophic Evolution and Ecology of Prey
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{"title"=>"Eco-evolutionary trophic dynamics: Loss of top predators drives trophic evolution and ecology of prey", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Eric P.", "last_name"=>"Palkovacs", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506051289"}, {"first_name"=>"Ben A.", "last_name"=>"Wasserman", "scopus_author_id"=>"37662450300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael T.", "last_name"=>"Kinnison", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004032143"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21526156", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018879", "sgr"=>"79955378061", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79955378061", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361671335"}, "id"=>"3a471492-c29d-39b9-abd0-c2a3bd6ea71c", "abstract"=>"Ecosystems are being altered on a global scale by the extirpation of top predators. The ecological effects of predator removal have been investigated widely; however, predator removal can also change natural selection acting on prey, resulting in contemporary evolution. Here we tested the role of predator removal on the contemporary evolution of trophic traits in prey. We utilized a historical introduction experiment where Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were relocated from a site with predatory fishes to a site lacking predators. To assess the trophic consequences of predator release, we linked individual morphology (cranial, jaw, and body) to foraging performance. Our results show that predator release caused an increase in guppy density and a \"sharpening\" of guppy trophic traits, which enhanced food consumption rates. Predator release appears to have shifted natural selection away from predator escape ability and towards resource acquisition ability. Related diet and mesocosm studies suggest that this shift enhances the impact of guppies on lower trophic levels in a fashion nuanced by the omnivorous feeding ecology of the species. We conclude that extirpation of top predators may commonly select for enhanced feeding performance in prey, with important cascading consequences for communities and ecosystems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ecoevolutionary-trophic-dynamics-loss-top-predators-drives-trophic-evolution-ecology-prey", "reader_count"=>158, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>48, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>20, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>48, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>20, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>25, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>119, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>119}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>25}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>4, "Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>8, "Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>5, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782298"], "description"=>"<p>Body shape was not a significant predictor of feeding rate. The low and high predation populations were significantly different, while the introduced population did not differ from either. Deformation images represent the extremes of the PLS vectors exaggerated by a factor of 3 to aid in interpretation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plotted", "predation", "introduced", "guppy"], "article_id"=>452671, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eric P. Palkovacs", "Ben A. Wasserman", "Michael T. Kinnison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018879.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_shape_PLS_score_plotted_against_food_consumption_rate_for_high_predation_open_squares_low_predation_open_diamonds_and_introduced_filled_triangles_guppy_populations_/452671", "title"=>"Body shape (PLS score) plotted against food consumption rate for high predation (open squares), low predation (open diamonds), and introduced (filled triangles) guppy populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-19 00:44:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782256"], "description"=>"<p>Head shape was a significant predictor of feeding rate. All three populations were significantly differentiated along the “feeding performance” axis. In the introduced population, the morphological features that enhanced foraging performance evolved away from the original high predation state and towards the natural low predation state. Deformation images represent the extremes of the PLS vectors exaggerated by a factor of 3 to aid in interpretation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plotted", "predation", "introduced", "guppy"], "article_id"=>452625, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eric P. Palkovacs", "Ben A. Wasserman", "Michael T. Kinnison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018879.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Head_shape_PLS_score_plotted_against_food_consumption_rate_for_high_predation_open_squares_low_predation_open_diamonds_and_introduced_filled_triangles_guppy_populations_/452625", "title"=>"Head shape (PLS score) plotted against food consumption rate for high predation (open squares), low predation (open diamonds), and introduced (filled triangles) guppy populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-19 00:43:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782409"], "description"=>"<p>Results of MANCOVA analyses for guppy head and body shape.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mancova", "analyses", "guppy"], "article_id"=>452786, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eric P. Palkovacs", "Ben A. Wasserman", "Michael T. Kinnison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018879.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_MANCOVA_analyses_for_guppy_head_and_body_shape_/452786", "title"=>"Results of MANCOVA analyses for guppy head and body shape.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-19 00:46:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/392091", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/392117"], "description"=>"<div><p>Ecosystems are being altered on a global scale by the extirpation of top predators. The ecological effects of predator removal have been investigated widely; however, predator removal can also change natural selection acting on prey, resulting in contemporary evolution. Here we tested the role of predator removal on the contemporary evolution of trophic traits in prey. We utilized a historical introduction experiment where Trinidadian guppies (<em>Poecilia reticulata</em>) were relocated from a site with predatory fishes to a site lacking predators. To assess the trophic consequences of predator release, we linked individual morphology (cranial, jaw, and body) to foraging performance. Our results show that predator release caused an increase in guppy density and a “sharpening” of guppy trophic traits, which enhanced food consumption rates. Predator release appears to have shifted natural selection away from predator escape ability and towards resource acquisition ability. Related diet and mesocosm studies suggest that this shift enhances the impact of guppies on lower trophic levels in a fashion nuanced by the omnivorous feeding ecology of the species. We conclude that extirpation of top predators may commonly select for enhanced feeding performance in prey, with important cascading consequences for communities and ecosystems.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eco-evolutionary", "trophic", "predators", "drives", "ecology", "prey"], "article_id"=>137443, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eric P. Palkovacs", "Ben A. Wasserman", "Michael T. Kinnison"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018879.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018879.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Eco_Evolutionary_Trophic_Dynamics_Loss_of_Top_Predators_Drives_Trophic_Evolution_and_Ecology_of_Prey/137443", "title"=>"Eco-Evolutionary Trophic Dynamics: Loss of Top Predators Drives Trophic Evolution and Ecology of Prey", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-04-19 02:04:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782107"], "description"=>"<p>For the head, landmarks 1-10 represent cranial landmarks, landmarks 11-16 represent premaxillary landmarks, and landmarks 17-18 represent dentary landmarks. Full descriptions of landmark positions are provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018879#pone.0018879.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["guppy"], "article_id"=>452487, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eric P. Palkovacs", "Ben A. Wasserman", "Michael T. Kinnison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018879.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Landmarks_for_A_guppy_body_shape_and_B_guppy_head_shape_/452487", "title"=>"Landmarks for A) guppy body shape and B) guppy head shape.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-19 00:41:27"}

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Relative Metric

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