Modelling the protective efficacy of alternative delivery schedules for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants and children
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{"title"=>"Modelling the protective efficacy of alternative delivery schedules for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants and children", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthew", "last_name"=>"Cairns", "scopus_author_id"=>"24480660700"}, {"first_name"=>"Azra", "last_name"=>"Ghani", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006814439"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucy", "last_name"=>"Okell", "scopus_author_id"=>"24484851300"}, {"first_name"=>"Roly", "last_name"=>"Gosling", "scopus_author_id"=>"15750608700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ilona", "last_name"=>"Carneiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602784837"}, {"first_name"=>"Francis", "last_name"=>"Anto", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506521926"}, {"first_name"=>"Victor", "last_name"=>"Asoala", "scopus_author_id"=>"8317493000"}, {"first_name"=>"Seth", "last_name"=>"Owusu-Agyei", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602311348"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Greenwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"36040863900"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Chandramohan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003426215"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Milligan", "scopus_author_id"=>"35398166100"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79955367749", "sgr"=>"79955367749", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018947", "pmid"=>"21533088", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"361671388"}, "id"=>"d345f4b1-9a5f-3130-8764-cdc40a4a4424", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by WHO where malaria incidence in infancy is high and SP resistance is low. The current delivery strategy is via routine Expanded Program on Immunisation contacts during infancy (EPI-IPTi). However, improvements to this approach may be possible where malaria transmission is seasonal, or where the malaria burden lies mainly outside infancy.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: A mathematical model was developed to estimate the protective efficacy (PE) of IPT against clinical malaria in children aged 2-24 months, using entomological and epidemiological data from an EPI-IPTi trial in Navrongo, Ghana to parameterise the model. The protection achieved by seasonally-targeted IPT in infants (sIPTi), seasonal IPT in children (sIPTc), and by case-management with long-acting artemisinin combination therapies (LA-ACTs) was predicted for Navrongo and for sites with different transmission intensity and seasonality. In Navrongo, the predicted PE of sIPTi was 26% by 24 months of age, compared to 16% with EPI-IPTi. sIPTc given to all children under 2 years would provide PE of 52% by 24 months of age. Seasonally-targeted IPT retained its advantages in a range of transmission patterns. Under certain circumstances, LA-ACTs for case-management may provide similar protection to EPI-IPTi. However, EPI-IPTi or sIPT combined with LA-ACTs would be substantially more protective than either strategy used alone.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Delivery of IPT to infants via the EPI is sub-optimal because individuals are not protected by IPT at the time of highest malaria risk, and because older children are not protected. Alternative delivery strategies to the EPI are needed where transmission varies seasonally or the malaria burden extends beyond infancy. Long-acting ACTs may also make important reductions in malaria incidence. However, delivery systems must be developed to ensure that both forms of chemoprevention reach the individuals who are most exposed to malaria.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/modelling-protective-efficacy-alternative-delivery-schedules-intermittent-preventive-treatment-malar", "reader_count"=>61, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. 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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781917"], "description"=>"<p>Incidence of clinical malaria between January 2001 and December 2003 is shown for infants and children 12–23 months of age in the placebo group of the IPTi trial. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval. Children were enrolled between September 2000– June 2002. Completion of 24 months follow-up ended in June 2004.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria", "navrongo", "ipti"], "article_id"=>452283, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Matthew Cairns", "Azra Ghani", "Lucy Okell", "Roly Gosling", "Ilona Carneiro", "Francis Anto", "Victor Asoala", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Brian Greenwood", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Paul Milligan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Incidence_of_clinical_malaria_in_the_Navrongo_IPTi_trial_/452283", "title"=>"Incidence of clinical malaria in the Navrongo IPTi trial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-20 00:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391971"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by WHO where malaria incidence in infancy is high and SP resistance is low. The current delivery strategy is via routine Expanded Program on Immunisation contacts during infancy (EPI-IPTi). However, improvements to this approach may be possible where malaria transmission is seasonal, or where the malaria burden lies mainly outside infancy.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>A mathematical model was developed to estimate the protective efficacy (PE) of IPT against clinical malaria in children aged 2-24 months, using entomological and epidemiological data from an EPI-IPTi trial in Navrongo, Ghana to parameterise the model. The protection achieved by seasonally-targeted IPT in infants (sIPTi), seasonal IPT in children (sIPTc), and by case-management with long-acting artemisinin combination therapies (LA-ACTs) was predicted for Navrongo and for sites with different transmission intensity and seasonality. In Navrongo, the predicted PE of sIPTi was 26% by 24 months of age, compared to 16% with EPI-IPTi. sIPTc given to all children under 2 years would provide PE of 52% by 24 months of age. Seasonally-targeted IPT retained its advantages in a range of transmission patterns. Under certain circumstances, LA-ACTs for case-management may provide similar protection to EPI-IPTi. However, EPI-IPTi or sIPT combined with LA-ACTs would be substantially more protective than either strategy used alone.</p> <h3>Conclusion</h3><p>Delivery of IPT to infants via the EPI is sub-optimal because individuals are not protected by IPT at the time of highest malaria risk, and because older children are not protected. Alternative delivery strategies to the EPI are needed where transmission varies seasonally or the malaria burden extends beyond infancy. Long-acting ACTs may also make important reductions in malaria incidence. However, delivery systems must be developed to ensure that both forms of chemoprevention reach the individuals who are most exposed to malaria.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["efficacy", "schedules", "intermittent", "preventive", "malaria", "infants", "children"], "article_id"=>137420, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Matthew Cairns", "Azra Ghani", "Lucy Okell", "Roly Gosling", "Ilona Carneiro", "Francis Anto", "Victor Asoala", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Brian Greenwood", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Paul Milligan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Modelling_the_Protective_Efficacy_of_Alternative_Delivery_Schedules_for_Intermittent_Preventive_Treatment_of_Malaria_in_Infants_and_Children/137420", "title"=>"Modelling the Protective Efficacy of Alternative Delivery Schedules for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Infants and Children", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-20 02:03:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782030"], "description"=>"<p>Cumulative malaria incidence over the period of the Navrongo IPTi trial. Points indicate incidence data from the trial; the dotted and solid lines indicate the fitted model predictions the for placebo and EPI-IPTi (IPTi) groups respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria", "incidence", "fitted"], "article_id"=>452391, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Matthew Cairns", "Azra Ghani", "Lucy Okell", "Roly Gosling", "Ilona Carneiro", "Francis Anto", "Victor Asoala", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Brian Greenwood", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Paul Milligan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cumulative_malaria_incidence_predicted_by_the_fitted_model_/452391", "title"=>"Cumulative malaria incidence predicted by the fitted model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-20 00:39:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782109"], "description"=>"<p>Descriptions and values of key model parameters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["public health and epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Computational biology", "computer science", "Non-clinical medicine"], "article_id"=>452469, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Matthew Cairns", "Azra Ghani", "Lucy Okell", "Roly Gosling", "Ilona Carneiro", "Francis Anto", "Victor Asoala", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Brian Greenwood", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Paul Milligan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptions_and_values_of_key_model_parameters_/452469", "title"=>"Descriptions and values of key model parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-20 00:41:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781787"], "description"=>"<p>The number of children given IPT with two different strategies: 1) four courses of EPI- IPTi given at 3, 4, 9 & 12 months of age and 2) four courses of monthly seasonal IPT given to all infants regardless of their exact age. The EIR function from the model fitted to EIR data from Navrongo is also shown. Fitting of the EIR function is described in detail in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947#pone.0018947.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Supporting Information S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epi-ipt", "seasonal", "ipt"], "article_id"=>452152, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Matthew Cairns", "Azra Ghani", "Lucy Okell", "Roly Gosling", "Ilona Carneiro", "Francis Anto", "Victor Asoala", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Brian Greenwood", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Paul Milligan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_EPI_IPT_and_seasonal_IPT_in_infants_/452152", "title"=>"Illustration of EPI-IPT and seasonal IPT in infants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-20 00:35:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782193"], "description"=>"<p>* Mean duration of post-treatment prophylaxis after treatment for a symptomatic malaria episode, 14 days is the value assumed for CQ in Navrongo. For this analysis, duration of post-treatment prophylaxis after IPT was fixed at 30 days.</p><p>∧ cases averted relative to a drug for case management with mean duration of PTP of 14 days.</p>£<p>Number of cases averted by IPT (difference between cases in placebo group and SP group) with treatment drug of same duration.</p>$<p>Relative protective efficacy of seasonal IPT versus EPI-IPTi with same duration of PTP after treatment for symptomatic malaria.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["long-acting", "ipt"], "article_id"=>452556, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Matthew Cairns", "Azra Ghani", "Lucy Okell", "Roly Gosling", "Ilona Carneiro", "Francis Anto", "Victor Asoala", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Brian Greenwood", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Paul Milligan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_long_acting_drug_for_case_management_on_IPT_efficacy_/452556", "title"=>"Effect of long-acting drug for case management on IPT efficacy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-20 00:42:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781687"], "description"=>"<p>The main states and transitions in the model are shown. IPT is indicated by dashed lines. There are multiple analogous components in the model: the diagram represents one combination of age, intervention and exposure group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ipt"], "article_id"=>452051, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Matthew Cairns", "Azra Ghani", "Lucy Okell", "Roly Gosling", "Ilona Carneiro", "Francis Anto", "Victor Asoala", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Brian Greenwood", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Paul Milligan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_IPT_model_structure_/452051", "title"=>"Overview of IPT model structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-20 00:34:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/782153"], "description"=>"<p>Protective efficacy of EPI-linked intermittent preventive treatment in infants (EPI-IPTi) and seasonal IPT under different seasonality and transmission intensity. EPI-IPTi delivered at 3, 4, 9 and 12 months of age. Seasonal IPT consists of four monthly courses of seasonal IPT targeted at the peak in transmission given to infants alone (sIPTi) or to all children <24 months of age (sIPTc).EIR: entomological inoculation rate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["efficacy", "epi-ipti", "seasonal", "ipt", "epidemiological"], "article_id"=>452513, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Matthew Cairns", "Azra Ghani", "Lucy Okell", "Roly Gosling", "Ilona Carneiro", "Francis Anto", "Victor Asoala", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Brian Greenwood", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Paul Milligan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018947.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protective_efficacy_of_EPI_IPTi_and_seasonal_IPT_by_epidemiological_setting_/452513", "title"=>"Protective efficacy of EPI-IPTi and seasonal IPT by epidemiological setting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-20 00:41:53"}

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Relative Metric

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