Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs
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{"title"=>"Short-snouted toothless ichthyosaur from China suggests late triassic diversification of suction feeding ichthyosaurs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"P. Martin", "last_name"=>"Sander", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005615418"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaohong", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"54921757500"}, {"first_name"=>"Long", "last_name"=>"Cheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403337633"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaofeng", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56672635900"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79956355820", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0019480", "pui"=>"361809143", "arxiv"=>"arXiv:1011.1669v3", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21625429", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79956355820"}, "id"=>"296ed5a1-dae9-36d2-a909-a75da44b9d7e", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on new material from China and the restudy of Shastasaurus pacificus, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus Shastasaurus to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant Shonisaurus sikanniensis, Guanlingsaurus liangae, and Shastasaurus pacificus to which the genus name Shastasaurus is applied. Shastasaurus liangae comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae), a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant S. sikanniensis and presumably in S. pacificus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In analogy to many modern odontocetes, Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in Shastasaurus may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/shortsnouted-toothless-ichthyosaur-china-suggests-late-triassic-diversification-suction-feeding-icht", "reader_count"=>54, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>29, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>29}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387693", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387740", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387775", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387809", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387819"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Based on new material from China and the restudy of <em>Shastasaurus pacificus</em>, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus <em>Shastasaurus</em> to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant <em>Shonisaurus sikanniensis</em>, <em>Guanlingsaurus liangae</em>, and <em>Shastasaurus pacificus</em> to which the genus name <em>Shastasaurus</em> is applied. <em>Shastasaurus liangae</em> comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae), a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant <em>S. sikanniensis</em> and presumably in <em>S. pacificus</em>.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>In analogy to many modern odontocetes, <em>Shastasaurus</em> is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in <em>Shastasaurus</em> may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["short-snouted", "toothless", "ichthyosaur", "china", "suggests", "triassic", "diversification", "suction", "feeding", "ichthyosaurs"], "article_id"=>136561, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["P. Martin Sander", "Xiaohong Chen", "Long Cheng", "Xiaofeng Wang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>42, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Short_Snouted_Toothless_Ichthyosaur_from_China_Suggests_Late_Triassic___Diversification_of_Suction_Feeding_Ichthyosaurs/136561", "title"=>"Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic\n Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-05-23 01:49:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/771945"], "description"=>"<p>Photograph and drawing of skull of YGMIR SPCV03107. (A) in left lateral\n view. Note the greatly abbreviated rostrum, the complete lack of teeth,\n the large foramina in the maxillary and lacrimal bones, and the dorsally\n convex coronoid region of the dentary (arrow). (B) in dorsal view. Note\n the nasals extending to the tip of the rostrum. Abbreviations: a,\n angular; ar, articular; d, dentary; en, external nares; f, frontal; if,\n internasal foramen; j, jugal; l, lacrimal; mx, maxilla; pa, parietal;\n pf, postfrontal; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; prf, prefrontal; qj,\n quadratojugal; sa, surangular; sq, squamosal; st, supratemporal; uto,\n upper temporal opening.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy"], "article_id"=>442322, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["P. Martin Sander", "Xiaohong Chen", "Long Cheng", "Xiaofeng Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_anatomy_of_Shastasaurus_liangae_comb____nov_/442322", "title"=>"Skull anatomy of <i>Shastasaurus liangae</i> comb.\n nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-23 00:38:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772388"], "description"=>"<p>Based on this skull, <i>Shastasaurus</i> has repeatedly been\n reconstructed with a long, tooth-bearing rostrum. However, note the\n slenderness of the lower jaw (B, C) and the strong anterior taper of the\n snout (B), both of which are more consistent with the abbreviated and\n toothless snout of <i>Shastasaurus liangae</i> comb. nov. than\n with the traditional long-snouted reconstruction of this skull (as,\n e.g., in references <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480#pone.0019480-Merriam2\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480#pone.0019480-Maisch3\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["triassic", "anterolateral"], "article_id"=>442757, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["P. Martin Sander", "Xiaohong Chen", "Long Cheng", "Xiaofeng Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Partial_skull_of_Shastasaurus_pacificus_UCMP_9017____from_the_Late_Triassic_of_California_USA_in_A_lateral_B_dorsal____and_C_anterolateral_view_/442757", "title"=>"Partial skull of <i>Shastasaurus pacificus</i> (UCMP 9017)\n from the Late Triassic of California, USA, in (A) lateral, (B) dorsal,\n and (C) anterolateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-23 00:45:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772229"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Pectoral girdle and forelimb elements of YGMIR SPCV03107. (B) Pelvic\n girdle and hindlimb elements of YGMIR SPCV03107. Abbreviations: f,\n femur; fi, fibula; h, humerus; i, ischium; r, radius; s, scapula; t,\n tibia; u, ulna. Scale bars, 10 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton"], "article_id"=>442606, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["P. Martin Sander", "Xiaohong Chen", "Long Cheng", "Xiaofeng Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Appendicular_skeleton_of_Shastasaurus_liangae_comb____nov_/442606", "title"=>"Appendicular skeleton of <i>Shastasaurus liangae</i> comb.\n nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-23 00:43:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/771845"], "description"=>"<p>Juvenile individual YGMIR SPCV03108, total length 3.75 m. Scale bar, 50\n cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>442215, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["P. Martin Sander", "Xiaohong Chen", "Long Cheng", "Xiaofeng Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shastasaurus_liangae_comb_nov_/442215", "title"=>"<i>Shastasaurus liangae</i> comb. nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-23 00:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772514"], "description"=>"<p>This cladogram represents the strict consensus of 72 most parsimonious\n trees. Differences in topology among MPTs are mainly found among the\n outgroup taxa and the basal Merriamosauria. Derived Parvipelvia were\n part of the analysis but were omitted for clarity. Relevant nodes are\n numbered in accordance with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480#pone.0019480.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S5</a>. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> section and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480#s5\" target=\"_blank\">Supporting Information</a> for details of\n analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>442894, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["P. Martin Sander", "Xiaohong Chen", "Long Cheng", "Xiaofeng Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationships_of_Shastasaurus_/442894", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationships of <i>Shastasaurus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-23 00:48:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772087"], "description"=>"<p>Photograph (A) and drawing (B) of the skull of the juvenile specimen\n YGMIR SPCV03108. Crushing lead to both the dorsal and the right lateral\n view being exposed. Note the greatly abbreviated rostrum, the complete\n lack of teeth, and the large foramina in the maxilla. Also note the\n nasals extending to the tip of the rostrum and the angular almost\n extending to the tip of the lower jaw. The extent of the left hyoid bone\n is highlighted by the arrows. Abbreviations: a, angular; d, dentary; f,\n frontal; hy, hyoid bone: j, jugal; l, lacrimal; mx, maxilla; pa,\n parietal; pf, postfrontal; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; prf,\n prefrontal; q, quadrate; sa, surangular; sq, squamosal; st,\n supratemporal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy"], "article_id"=>442463, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["P. Martin Sander", "Xiaohong Chen", "Long Cheng", "Xiaofeng Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019480.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_anatomy_of_Shastasaurus_liangae_comb____nov_/442463", "title"=>"Skull anatomy of <i>Shastasaurus liangae</i> comb.\n nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-23 00:41:03"}

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Relative Metric

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