Honeybees' Speed Depends on Dorsal as Well as Lateral, Ventral and Frontal Optic Flows
Publication Date
May 12, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Geoffrey Portelli, Franck Ruffier, Frédéric L. Roubieu & Nicolas Franceschini
Volume
6
Issue
5
Pages
e19486
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019486
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0019486
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589861
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093387
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21589861
Web of Science
000290531100013
Scopus
79955936002
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/honeybees-speed-depends-dorsal-lateral-ventral-frontal-optic-flows
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Honeybees' speed depends on dorsal as well as lateral, ventral and frontal optic flows", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Geoffrey", "last_name"=>"Portelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"26423252700"}, {"first_name"=>"Franck", "last_name"=>"Ruffier", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506504364"}, {"first_name"=>"Frédéric L.", "last_name"=>"Roubieu", "scopus_author_id"=>"37361358700"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Franceschini", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006270912"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361758714", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0019486", "sgr"=>"79955936002", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79955936002", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21589861"}, "id"=>"28b8dad5-f4dc-3abb-a6c8-090b4f497b40", "abstract"=>"Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS (\"AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System\") model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/honeybees-speed-depends-dorsal-lateral-ventral-frontal-optic-flows", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>9, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Psychology"=>5, "Computer Science"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>9}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>7}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/775403"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Minimum section at 90° of the tapered tunnel as a function of the distance along the abscissa. The minimum section at 90° was alternately in the horizontal plane and vertical plane. (B) Larger of the two optic flow sums in the <i>horizontal</i> plane (dash-dotted yellow line) and the <i>vertical</i> plane (magenta line), (mean(Max Σ<i>ω<sup>90°</sup></i>) = 711.8±24°/s, the highest value peaks at Max(Max Σ<i>ω<sup>90°</sup></i>) = 1192°/s), as well as the larger optic flow that would have been experienced theoretically at 90° at a constant ground speed (0.74 m/s), i.e., without the use of any speed control system by the bee (dashed black line, mean(MaxΣ<i>ω<sup>90°</sup><sub>w/o</sub></i><sub>SpeedControl</sub>) = 1258.2±85°/s, the highest value peaks at Max(Max Σ<i>ω<sup>90°</sup><sub>w/o</sub></i><sub>SpeedControl</sub>) = 2971°/s). (C) Minimum section profile of the tapered tunnel, encountered at an angle of 45° from the frontal heading direction. The minimum section encountered at an angle of 45° occurred alternately in the horizontal plane (dash-dotted green line) and the vertical plane (blue line), and the changes of speed occurred earlier than those recorded at an angle of 90°. (D) Larger of the two optic flow sums in the <i>horizontal</i> plane (dash-dotted green line) and the <i>vertical</i> plane (blue line), (mean(Max Σ<i>ω<sup>45°</sup></i>) = 351.7±14.2°/s, the highest value peaks at Max(Max Σ<i>ω<sup>45°</sup></i>) = 601°/s ), as well as the larger optic flow that would theoretically have been experienced at 45° at a constant speed (0.74 m/s), i.e., without the use of any speed control system by the bee (dashed black line, mean(Max Σ<i>ω<sup>45°</sup><sub>w/o</sub></i><sub>SpeedControl</sub>) = 610.1±14°/s, the highest value peaks at Max(Max Σ<i>ω<sup>45°</sup><sub>w/o</sub></i><sub>SpeedControl</sub>) = 1493°/s). The histograms on the right show the dispersion of the data. The faded colors around the curves give ± the standard error of the mean (s.e.m.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["optic", "21", "honeybees"], "article_id"=>445773, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Geoffrey Portelli", "Franck Ruffier", "Frédéric L. Roubieu", "Nicolas Franceschini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019486.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_the_larger_of_the_two_optic_flow_sums_perceived_by_the_21_honeybees_at_an_angle_of_90_and_at_45_with_respect_to_the_tunnel_x_axis_in_comparison_to_the_minimum_section_of_the_tunnel_at_each_point_along_the_tunnel_/445773", "title"=>"Analysis of the <i>larger of the two optic flow sums</i> perceived by the 21 honeybees at an angle of 90° and at 45° with respect to the tunnel x-axis, in comparison to the minimum section of the tunnel at each point along the tunnel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-12 01:36:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/389144", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/389173"], "description"=>"<div><p>Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS (“AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System”) model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depends", "dorsal", "ventral", "frontal", "optic", "flows"], "article_id"=>136840, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Geoffrey Portelli", "Franck Ruffier", "Frédéric L. Roubieu", "Nicolas Franceschini"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019486.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019486.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Honeybees_Speed_Depends_on_Dorsal_as_Well_as_Lateral_Ventral_and_Frontal_Optic_Flows/136840", "title"=>"Honeybees' Speed Depends on Dorsal as Well as Lateral, Ventral and Frontal Optic Flows", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-05-12 01:54:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/775168"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Top view of the tunnel showing the entrance of the honeybee, and the tapering in the horizontal plane at a distance of 80 cm to 200 cm from the entrance. (B) Side view of the actual trajectory of a honeybee, plotted every 100 ms. The honeybee's course was fairly well centered in the tunnel (mean height <i>h</i> = 19±0.19 cm). (C) Honeybee's speed as a function of the distance along the abscissa <i>x</i>. The honeybee decreased its speed as the tunnel narrowed, regardless of whether the narrowing was in the vertical or the horizontal plane. The honeybee then increased its speed as the tunnel widened.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trajectory", "honeybee", "doubly-tapered"], "article_id"=>445542, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Geoffrey Portelli", "Franck Ruffier", "Frédéric L. Roubieu", "Nicolas Franceschini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019486.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_trajectory_of_an_individual_honeybee_in_the_doubly_tapered_tunnel_/445542", "title"=>"Typical trajectory of an individual honeybee in the doubly-tapered tunnel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-12 01:32:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/775027"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Top view of the tunnel. The honeybee flies into the tunnel. The left optic flow ω<i><sup>90°</sup></i><sub>Left</sub> and the right optic flow ω<i><sup>90°</sup></i><sub>Rght</sub> are generated by the contrasts on the side walls. The sum of these opposite optic flows at 90° is Σω<i><sup>90°</sup></i><sub>Lat</sub> (dash-dotted yellow line). The left optical flow ω<i><sup>45°</sup></i><sub>Left</sub> and the right optical flow ω<i><sup>45°</sup></i><sub>Rght</sub> are generated at an angle of 45° with respect to the tunnel x-axis. Their sum is Σω<i><sup>45°</sup></i><sub>Lat</sub> (dash-dotted green line). (B) Side view of the tunnel. The honeybee flies into the tunnel. The dorsal optic flow ω<i><sup>90°</sup></i><sub>Drsl</sub> and the ventral optical flow ω<i><sup>90°</sup></i><sub>Vtrl</sub> are generated by the contrasting stripes on the ceiling and the floor of the tunnel, respectively. The sum of these optic flows at an angle of 90° is Σω<i><sup>90°</sup></i><sub>Vert</sub> (magenta line). The dorsal optic flow ω<i><sup>45°</sup></i><sub>Drsl</sub> and the ventral optical flow ω<i><sup>45°</sup></i><sub>Vtrl</sub> are generated at an angle of 45° with respect to the tunnel x-axis. Their sum is Σω<i><sup>45°</sup></i><sub>Vert</sub> (blue line). (C–D) Perspective view of the whole doubly-tapered tunnel. Two tapered zones occur in this tunnel: the first one is tapered in the vertical plane (from 30 cm to 80 cm, tapering angle 14°), and the second, in the horizontal plane (from 80 cm to 200 cm, tapering angle 18°). (E) Minimum section of the tapered tunnel along the abscissa. Because of the way this particular tunnel was designed, the minimum section was encountered alternately in the horizontal plane (dash-dotted yellow line) and the vertical plane (magenta line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>445396, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Geoffrey Portelli", "Franck Ruffier", "Frédéric L. Roubieu", "Nicolas Franceschini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019486.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_flight_tunnel_/445396", "title"=>"Experimental flight tunnel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-12 01:29:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/775282"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Top view of the tunnel showing the entrance of the honeybee, the part tapering in the horizontal plane (from 80 cm to 200 cm) and the assumed trajectory of the insect in the horizontal plane (see text). (B) Side view of the tapered tunnel, showing in particular the vertical constriction. The mean flight path of the honeybees is plotted as a function of the distance along the abscissa. The insects' mean trajectory can be seen to be practically vertically centered throughout the tunnel (mean height <i>h</i> = 19±0.16 cm). (C) Ground speed profile along the tunnel. The honeybees decreased their speed as the tunnel narrowed and increased their speed as it widened. The faded trace around the curves gives ± the standard error of the mean (s.e.m.). The gray profile underneath the main curve shows the overall flight speed pattern as shown by the analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trajectory", "21", "honeybees", "doubly-tapered"], "article_id"=>445648, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Geoffrey Portelli", "Franck Ruffier", "Frédéric L. Roubieu", "Nicolas Franceschini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019486.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_vertical_trajectory_and_mean_speed_of_the_21_honeybees_in_the_doubly_tapered_tunnel_/445648", "title"=>"Mean vertical trajectory and mean speed of the 21 honeybees in the doubly-tapered tunnel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-12 01:34:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/775551"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Perspective view of the doubly-tapered tunnel lined with red and white stripes. Two tapered zones occur in this simulated tunnel: the first one is tapered in the vertical plane (from 30 cm to 80 cm, tapering angle 14°), and the second, in the horizontal plane (from 80 cm to 200 cm, tapering angle 18°). (B) Simulated bee's 3-D trajectory starting at initial coordinates x<sub>0</sub> = 0.01 m; y<sub>0</sub> = 0.135 m; z<sub>0</sub> = 0.2 m, and at the speed <i>Vx</i><sub>oSIMU</sub> = 0.13 m/s. The time markers are plotted every 250 ms. (C) Trajectory in the vertical plane (x, z). The time markers are plotted every 250 ms. (D) Trajectory in the horizontal plane (x,y). The time markers are plotted every 250 ms. (E) Ground speed <i>Vx</i><sub>SIMU</sub> profile generated by the ALIS model based on two optic flow regulators: this profile accounts very satisfactorily for the minimum section of the doubly-tapered tunnel shown below. (F) Minimum section of the doubly-tapered tunnel along the abscissa. Due to the design of the tunnel, the minimum section was encountered alternately in the horizontal plane (dash-dotted yellow line) and the vertical plane (magenta line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performances", "minimalist", "alis", "doubly-tapered"], "article_id"=>445917, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Geoffrey Portelli", "Franck Ruffier", "Frédéric L. Roubieu", "Nicolas Franceschini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019486.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulated_performances_of_the_minimalist_ALIS_model_in_the_same_doubly_tapered_tunnel_/445917", "title"=>"Simulated performances of the minimalist ALIS model in the same doubly-tapered tunnel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-12 01:38:37"}

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Relative Metric

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