Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields
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{"title"=>"Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jochen", "last_name"=>"Krauss", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202204267"}, {"first_name"=>"Iris", "last_name"=>"Gallenberger", "scopus_author_id"=>"37664794600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ingolf", "last_name"=>"Steffan-Dewenter", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004114191"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79956220974", "pui"=>"361789532", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0019502", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"79956220974", "pmid"=>"21611171"}, "id"=>"9e10c096-d61b-3e09-953a-1353c108eadf", "abstract"=>"Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/decreased-functional-diversity-biological-pest-control-conventional-compared-organic-crop-fields", "reader_count"=>214, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>42, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>40, "Student > Bachelor"=>42, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>42, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>40, "Student > Bachelor"=>42, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>32, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>148, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>148}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>32}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>2, "United States"=>6, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Malta"=>1, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>3, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>11}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774758"], "description"=>"<p>Field identity was used as a random effect. Response variables were transformed (see statistical analyses). Mean and SE are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502#pone-0019502-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>.</p><p>↑ = insecticide treated (yes) or edge is higher, ↓ = insecticide treated (yes) or edge is lower.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["temporal", "changes", "aphid", "abundance", "explanatory", "variables", "insecticide", "flied"], "article_id"=>445120, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mixed_effects_model_statistics_for_temporal_changes_in_aphid_abundance_and_predator_abundance_with_the_explanatory_variables_insecticide_treatment_flied_location_and_the_interaction_of_insecticide_treatment_and_field_location_/445120", "title"=>"Mixed effects model statistics for temporal changes in aphid abundance and predator abundance with the explanatory variables insecticide treatment, flied location and the interaction of insecticide treatment and field location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:25:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774876"], "description"=>"<p>Application of agrochemicals on conventional triticale fields in the region of Oberfranken (x = treated).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agrochemicals", "triticale", "fields", "oberfranken"], "article_id"=>445246, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Application_of_agrochemicals_on_conventional_triticale_fields_in_the_region_of_Oberfranken_x_8202_8202_treated_/445246", "title"=>"Application of agrochemicals on conventional triticale fields in the region of Oberfranken (x = treated).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:27:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774582"], "description"=>"<p>Statistics see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502#pone-0019502-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aphid", "abundance", "insecticide", "treated", "non-treated", "triticale", "edges", "centres"], "article_id"=>444954, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_dynamics_of_a_aphid_abundance_and_b_predator_abundance_in_insecticide_treated_and_non_treated_conventional_triticale_field_edges_and_centres_mean_177_se_/444954", "title"=>"Temporal dynamics of (a) aphid abundance and (b) predator abundance in insecticide treated and non-treated conventional triticale field edges and centres (mean ±se).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:22:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774337"], "description"=>"<p>C/O: conventional/organic fields, E/C: edge/centre in field, Int: Interaction term. **** p≤0.0001, *** p≤0.001, ** p≤0.01, * p≤0.05, ns p>0.1. Statistics see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502#pone-0019502-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aphid-predators", "predator-prey", "triticale", "edges", "centres"], "article_id"=>444708, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abundances_of_a_aphids_b_aphid_predators_and_c_predator_prey_ratio_in_conventional_and_organic_triticale_field_edges_and_centres_mean_177_se_/444708", "title"=>"Abundances of (a) aphids, (b) aphid-predators and (c) predator-prey ratio in conventional and organic triticale field edges and centres (mean ± se).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:18:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774815"], "description"=>"<p>Field identity was used as a random effect. Response variables were transformed (see statistical analyses). Mean and SE are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502#pone-0019502-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502#pone-0019502-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a> or in the text.</p><p>↑ = conventional or edge is higher, ↓ = conventional or edge is lower.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variables", "explanatory", "farming"], "article_id"=>445186, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mixed_effects_model_statistics_of_the_seven_response_variables_with_the_explanatory_variables_farming_system_field_location_and_the_interaction_of_farming_system_and_field_location_/445186", "title"=>"Mixed effects model statistics of the seven response variables with the explanatory variables farming system, field location and the interaction of farming system and field location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:26:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774445"], "description"=>"<p>Y/N: treated/not treated fields, E/C: edge/centre in field, Int: Interaction term. *** p≤0.001, * p≤0.05, (*) p≤0.1, ns p>0.1. Statistics see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502#pone-0019502-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aphid-predators", "predator-prey", "insecticide", "treated", "non-treated", "triticale", "edges", "centres"], "article_id"=>444815, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abundances_of_a_aphids_b_aphid_predators_and_c_predator_prey_ratio_in_insecticide_treated_and_non_treated_conventional_triticale_field_edges_and_centres_mean_177_se_/444815", "title"=>"Abundances of (a) aphids, (b) aphid-predators and (c) predator-prey ratio in insecticide treated and non-treated conventional triticale field edges and centres (mean ± se).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:20:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774843"], "description"=>"<p>Variables are transformed (see statistical analyses).</p><p>Significance levels:</p><p>****<i>P</i><0.0001;</p><p>***<i>P</i><0.001;</p><p>n.s. = not significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["correlations", "variables", "60", "locations", "30"], "article_id"=>445213, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pearson_correlations_r_values_between_response_variables_of_the_60_study_locations_in_30_fields_/445213", "title"=>"Pearson correlations (r-values) between response variables of the 60 study locations in 30 fields.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:26:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/388281"], "description"=>"<div><p>Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["decreased", "pest", "compared", "fields"], "article_id"=>136677, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Decreased_Functional_Diversity_and_Biological_Pest_Control_in_Conventional_Compared_to_Organic_Crop_Fields/136677", "title"=>"Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:51:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774192"], "description"=>"<p>C/O: conventional/organic fields, E/C: edge/centre in field, Int: Interaction term. **** p≤0.0001, ** p≤0.01, ns p>0.1. Statistics see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502#pone-0019502-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "vascular", "plants", "pollinators", "triticale", "edges", "centres"], "article_id"=>444563, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_richness_of_a_vascular_plants_and_b_pollinators_in_conventional_and_organic_triticale_field_edges_and_centres_mean_177_se_/444563", "title"=>"Species richness of (a) vascular plants and (b) pollinators in conventional and organic triticale field edges and centres (mean ± se).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:16:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774784"], "description"=>"<p>Field identity was used as a random effect. Response variables were transformed (see statistical analyses). Mean and SE are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502#pone-0019502-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>.</p><p>↑ = insecticide treated (yes) or edge is higher, ↓ = insecticide treated (yes) or edge is lower.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aphid", "abundance", "predator-prey", "explanatory", "variables", "insecticide"], "article_id"=>445156, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mixed_effects_model_statistics_for_aphid_abundance_predator_abundance_and_predator_prey_ratio_with_the_explanatory_variables_insecticide_treatment_field_location_and_the_interaction_of_insecticide_treatment_and_field_location_/445156", "title"=>"Mixed effects model statistics for aphid abundance, predator abundance and predator-prey ratio with the explanatory variables insecticide treatment, field location and the interaction of insecticide treatment and field location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:25:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774094"], "description"=>"<p>(a) The 30 triticale fields were located in the northern part of Bavaria in the districts of Bayreuth and Kulmbach (Symbols: ▪ conventional, not treated; □ conventional treated with insecticides; ▴ organic farming system). (b) Sampling scheme in each triticale field. Five study plots were surveyed at the edge and five in the centre of each field.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["germany", "sampling"], "article_id"=>444466, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jochen Krauss", "Iris Gallenberger", "Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_study_region_in_southern_Germany_and_used_sampling_scheme_/444466", "title"=>"Location of study region in southern Germany and used sampling scheme.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-18 01:14:26"}

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