Experimental Demonstration of the Fitness Consequences of an Introduced Parasite of Darwin's Finches
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{"title"=>"Experimental demonstration of the fitness consequences of an introduced parasite of Darwin's finches", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jennifer A.H.", "last_name"=>"Koop", "scopus_author_id"=>"36007171300"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah K.", "last_name"=>"Huber", "scopus_author_id"=>"55435973100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sean M.", "last_name"=>"Laverty", "scopus_author_id"=>"36059419900"}, {"first_name"=>"Dale H.", "last_name"=>"Clayton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202150289"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361753563", "sgr"=>"79955887109", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0019706", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79955887109", "pmid"=>"21589659"}, "id"=>"ce0bc1e6-921f-396e-8492-ab66281a982a", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Introduced parasites are a particular threat to small populations of hosts living on islands because extinction can occur before hosts have a chance to evolve effective defenses. An experimental approach in which parasite abundance is manipulated in the field can be the most informative means of assessing a parasite's impact on the host. The parasitic fly Philornis downsi, recently introduced to the Galápagos Islands, feeds on nestling Darwin's finches and other land birds. Several correlational studies, and one experimental study of mixed species over several years, reported that the flies reduce host fitness. Here we report the results of a larger scale experimental study of a single species at a single site over a single breeding season.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated the abundance of flies in the nests of medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) and quantified the impact of the parasites on nestling growth and fledging success. We used nylon nest liners to reduce the number of parasites in 24 nests, leaving another 24 nests as controls. A significant reduction in mean parasite abundance led to a significant increase in the number of nests that successfully fledged young. Nestlings in parasite-reduced nests also tended to be larger prior to fledging.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm that P. downsi has significant negative effects on the fitness of medium ground finches, and they may pose a serious threat to other species of Darwin's finches. These data can help in the design of management plans for controlling P. downsi in Darwin's finch breeding populations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/experimental-demonstration-fitness-consequences-introduced-parasite-darwins-finches", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Bulgaria"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/776221"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of the mean (±SE) number of <i>P. downsi</i> in lined and unlined nests.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lined", "unlined"], "article_id"=>446594, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer A. H. Koop", "Sarah K. Huber", "Sean M. Laverty", "Dale H. Clayton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019706.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_mean_SE_number_of_P_downsi_in_lined_and_unlined_nests_/446594", "title"=>"Comparison of the mean (±SE) number of <i>P. downsi</i> in lined and unlined nests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:31:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/776118"], "description"=>"<p>A) <i>Philornis downsi</i> larvae in the nest of a medium ground finch <i>(Geospiza fortis)</i>; photo courtesy of A. Hendry; B) <i>G. fortis</i> nestling with three lesions on the abdomen and damage to the nares (nostrils) from <i>P. downsi</i> larvae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>446483, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer A. H. Koop", "Sarah K. Huber", "Sean M. Laverty", "Dale H. Clayton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019706.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_organisms_/446483", "title"=>"Study organisms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:30:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/776513"], "description"=>"<p>(Y, impact of parasite on host parameter detected; N, no impact detected; -, not tested).</p><p>*Observational data suggest <i>P. downsi</i> responsible for nestling mortality.</p>†<p>Correlational data show a negative relationship between parasite abundance and fledging success.</p>‡<p>Experimental nests fumigated to reduce parasite abundance.</p>α<p>Different islands pooled for analysis.</p>β<p>Different species pooled for analysis.</p>Ω<p>Geospiza fuliginosa, Camarhynchus parvulus, Cam. psittacula, Certhidea olivacea.</p>θ<p>Geospiza fuliginosa, G. fortis, Camarhynchus parvulus, Cam. psittacula, Cactospiza pallida, Certhidea olivacea.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>446882, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer A. H. Koop", "Sarah K. Huber", "Sean M. Laverty", "Dale H. Clayton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019706.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tests_of_the_impact_of_Philornis_downsi_on_Darwin_s_Finches_/446882", "title"=>"Tests of the impact of <i>Philornis downsi</i> on Darwin's Finches.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:33:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/776408"], "description"=>"<p>Light bars are the total number of (A) nests and (B) nestlings monitored. Darker bars are (A) the number of nests that fledged one or more young, and (B) the total number of fledglings from nests in each treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["liners", "fledging"], "article_id"=>446782, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer A. H. Koop", "Sarah K. Huber", "Sean M. Laverty", "Dale H. Clayton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019706.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_liners_on_host_fledging_success_/446782", "title"=>"Effect of liners on host fledging success.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:32:36"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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