A New Crocodylian from the Late Maastrichtian of Spain: Implications for the Initial Radiation of Crocodyloids
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{"title"=>"A new crocodylian from the late maastrichtian of spain: Implications for the initial radiation of crocodyloids", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Eduardo", "last_name"=>"Puértolas", "scopus_author_id"=>"55586715800"}, {"first_name"=>"José I.", "last_name"=>"Canudo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603059434"}, {"first_name"=>"Penélope", "last_name"=>"Cruzado-Caballero", "scopus_author_id"=>"28067692700"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79958082808", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0020011", "sgr"=>"79958082808", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"21687705", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361908367"}, "id"=>"26ca376f-88d3-31b2-869f-d0b7aba51b5c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The earliest crocodylians are known primarily from the Late Cretaceous of North America and Europe. The representatives of Gavialoidea and Alligatoroidea are known in the Late Cretaceous of both continents, yet the biogeographic origins of Crocodyloidea are poorly understood. Up to now, only one representative of this clade has been known from the Late Cretaceous, the basal crocodyloid Prodiplocynodon from the Maastrichtian of North America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fossil studied is a skull collected from sandstones in the lower part of the Tremp Formation, in Chron C30n, dated at -67.6 to 65.5 Ma (late Maastrichtian), in Arén (Huesca, Spain). It is located in a continuous section that contains the K/P boundary, in which the dinosaur faunas closest to the K/P boundary in Europe have been described, including Arenysaurus ardevoli and Blasisaurus canudoi. Phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon, Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum, at the base of Crocodyloidea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new taxon is the oldest crocodyloid representative in Eurasia. Crocodyloidea had previously only been known from the Palaeogene onwards in this part of Laurasia. Phylogenetically, Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum is situated at the base of the first radiation of crocodyloids that occurred in the late Maastrichtian, shedding light on this part of the cladogram. The presence of basal crocodyloids at the end of the Cretaceous both in North America and Europe provides new evidence of the faunal exchange via the Thulean Land Bridge during the Maastrichtian.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-crocodylian-late-maastrichtian-spain-implications-initial-radiation-crocodyloids", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>26}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>26}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>4}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767936"], "description"=>"<p>A–B, dorsal view. C–D, lateral view. Hatched grey pattern represents broken surfaces. Anatomical Abbreviations: ec, ectopterygoid; f, frontal; gef, groove for ear flap; itf, infratemporal fenestra; ju, jugal; l, lacrimal; ls, laterosphenoid; m, maxilla; mt10, maxillary tooth 10; mt11, maxillary tooth 11; n, nasal; na, naris; oa, otic aperture; or, orbit; p, parietal; pf, prefrontal; pm, premaxilla; pmn, premaxillomaxillary notch; pmt, premaxillary tooth; po, postorbital; pob, postorbital bar; pt, pterygoid; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; sq, squamosal; stf, supratemporal fenestra.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>438316, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eduardo Puértolas", "José I. Canudo", "Penélope Cruzado-Caballero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_of_Arenysuchus_gascabadiolorum_ELI_1_/438316", "title"=>"Skull of <i>Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum</i> (ELI-1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-08 02:18:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385997", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386103", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386121", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386187", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386236"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The earliest crocodylians are known primarily from the Late Cretaceous of North America and Europe. The representatives of Gavialoidea and Alligatoroidea are known in the Late Cretaceous of both continents, yet the biogeographic origins of Crocodyloidea are poorly understood. Up to now, only one representative of this clade has been known from the Late Cretaceous, the basal crocodyloid <em>Prodiplocynodon</em> from the Maastrichtian of North America.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>The fossil studied is a skull collected from sandstones in the lower part of the Tremp Formation, in Chron C30n, dated at −67.6 to 65.5 Ma (late Maastrichtian), in Arén (Huesca, Spain). It is located in a continuous section that contains the K/P boundary, in which the dinosaur faunas closest to the K/P boundary in Europe have been described, including <em>Arenysaurus ardevoli</em> and <em>Blasisaurus canudoi</em>. Phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon, <em>Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum</em>, at the base of Crocodyloidea.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The new taxon is the oldest crocodyloid representative in Eurasia. Crocodyloidea had previously only been known from the Palaeogene onwards in this part of Laurasia. Phylogenetically, <em>Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum</em> is situated at the base of the first radiation of crocodyloids that occurred in the late Maastrichtian, shedding light on this part of the cladogram. The presence of basal crocodyloids at the end of the Cretaceous both in North America and Europe provides new evidence of the faunal exchange via the Thulean Land Bridge during the Maastrichtian.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crocodylian", "maastrichtian", "implications", "crocodyloids"], "article_id"=>136201, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eduardo Puértolas", "José I. Canudo", "Penélope Cruzado-Caballero"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_New_Crocodylian_from_the_Late_Maastrichtian_of_Spain_Implications_for_the_Initial_Radiation_of_Crocodyloids/136201", "title"=>"A New Crocodylian from the Late Maastrichtian of Spain: Implications for the Initial Radiation of Crocodyloids", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-08 01:43:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/768031"], "description"=>"<p>A–B, ventral view. C–D, posterior view. Hatched grey pattern represents broken surfaces. Anatomical Abbreviations: bo, basioccipital; bs, basisphenoid; cap, capitate process; ch, choana; ec, ectopterygoid; ex, exoccipital; f, frontal; fa, foramen aërum; fm, foramen magnum; fo, foramen ovale; if, incisive foramen; ju, jugal; ls, laterosphenoid; m, maxilla; mt10, maxillary tooth 10; mt11, maxillary tooth 11; n, nasal; op, 7<sup>th</sup>–8<sup>th</sup> occlusion pit; or, orbit; p, parietal; pl, palatine; pm, premaxilla; pmn, premaxillomaxillary notch; pmt, premaxillary tooth; po, postorbital; pt, pterygoid; q, quadrate; so, supraoccipital; sof, suborbital fenestra; sq, squamosal; stf, supratemporal fenestra; A and B, muscle scars on the quadrate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>438402, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eduardo Puértolas", "José I. Canudo", "Penélope Cruzado-Caballero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_of_Arenysuchus_gascabadiolorum_ELI_1_/438402", "title"=>"Skull of <i>Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum</i> (ELI-1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-08 02:20:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/768134"], "description"=>"<p>Stratigraphically calibrated strict consensus of 368 equally parsimonious trees resulting from parsimony analysis of 176 characters in 51 taxa. Thick blue lines represent known minimal ranges (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011#pone.0020011-Salisbury1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011#pone.0020011-Brochu1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a> and bibliographies therein). The abbreviations above the names denote the area in which the taxon occurs (AF, Africa; ASIA, Asia; AUST, Australia; EUR, Europe; NA, North America; SA, South America; SE ASIA, southeast Asia). For more information see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011#pone.0020011.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011#pone.0020011.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S2</a> (data matrix, analysis protocol, apomorphy list, strict consensus tree and decay index).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>438511, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eduardo Puértolas", "José I. Canudo", "Penélope Cruzado-Caballero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationships_of_Arenysuchus_gascabadiolorum_/438511", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationships of <i>Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-08 02:21:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767837"], "description"=>"<p>With the location of the Blasi 1–3 and Elías sites. Modified from Pereda-Suberbiola <i>et al. </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011#pone.0020011-PeredaSuberbiola1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphic", "sections"], "article_id"=>438218, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eduardo Puértolas", "José I. Canudo", "Penélope Cruzado-Caballero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blasi_left_and_Ar_233_n_right_stratigraphic_sections_Huesca_/438218", "title"=>"Blasi (left) and Arén (right) stratigraphic sections (Huesca).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-08 02:16:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767707"], "description"=>"<p>A, Geological map of the Arén locality (the Elías site is indicated by star). B, the Elías site in general view. C, sandstone layer and concrete place where the fossil was collected. D, ELI-1 skull when it was collected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["was"], "article_id"=>438079, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Eduardo Puértolas", "José I. Canudo", "Penélope Cruzado-Caballero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020011.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_where_Arenysuchus_gascabadiolorum_ELI_1_was_found_/438079", "title"=>"Location where <i>Arenysuchus gascabadiolorum</i> (ELI-1) was found.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-08 02:14:39"}

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Relative Metric

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