Live Tissue Imaging Shows Reef Corals Elevate pH under Their Calcifying Tissue Relative to Seawater
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{"title"=>"Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alexander", "last_name"=>"Venn", "scopus_author_id"=>"24172849800"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric", "last_name"=>"Tambutté", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602773089"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Holcomb", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005724085"}, {"first_name"=>"Denis", "last_name"=>"Allemand", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003604806"}, {"first_name"=>"Sylvie", "last_name"=>"Tambutté", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507063305"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79957621620", "pui"=>"361836148", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0020013", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"79957621620", "pmid"=>"21637757"}, "id"=>"8ccf0746-05d4-3d8f-97d8-ddc7b63decda", "abstract"=>"The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification) raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe) under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by approximately 0.5 and approximately 0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi) of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/live-tissue-imaging-shows-reef-corals-elevate-ph-under-calcifying-tissue-relative-seawater", "reader_count"=>199, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>50, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>65, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>50, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>65, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>31, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>121, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemistry"=>5, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>25}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>25}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>121}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>31}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Reunion"=>1, "United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "United Arab Emirates"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "Bermuda"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Germany"=>4}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/770927"], "description"=>"<p>Aragonite saturation states were derived from pHe estimates made in the current study and assumed carbonate chemistry parameters (see discussion text for details).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aragonite", "saturation", "subcalicoblastic"], "article_id"=>441296, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexander Venn", "Eric Tambutté", "Michael Holcomb", "Denis Allemand", "Sylvie Tambutté"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020013.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_aragonite_saturation_state_in_the_subcalicoblastic_medium_/441296", "title"=>"Estimates of aragonite saturation state in the subcalicoblastic medium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-27 00:21:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/770344"], "description"=>"<p>(A) confocal optical section at 1 µm above the coverslip. Yellow = intracellular fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining the calicoblastic epithelium. (B) Transmitted light image merged with (A) to show crystal detail. (C) Profile view showing vertical relief of (A) acquired by Z-stack reconstruction. (D) confocal optical section at 1 µm above the coverslip. Green = calcein in the extracellular subcalicoblastic medium and staining crystals. Crystals are stained more brightly than the subcalicoblastic medium. (E) Transmitted light image merged with (D) to show position of tissue. C = crystals. S = fluid-filled space under the calicoblastic epithelium. M = sample margin. CE = calicoblastic epithelium. X = position of Z-stack vertical reconstruction shown in (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "calicoblastic", "epithelium"], "article_id"=>440710, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexander Venn", "Eric Tambutté", "Michael Holcomb", "Denis Allemand", "Sylvie Tambutté"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020013.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_vivo_images_of_the_calicoblastic_epithelium_of_S_pistillata_/440710", "title"=>"<i>In vivo</i> images of the calicoblastic epithelium of <i>S. pistillata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-27 00:11:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/770661"], "description"=>"<p>Measurements obtained in the subcalicoblastic medium (SCM), the calicoblastic epithelium (CE) and in the surrounding seawater at 100 µm and 2 mm from the sample margin in light and dark conditions. Data are means ± s.d., n = 4 different colonies. Letters in superscript indicate homogenous subsets determined by Tukey's posthoc analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["calicoblastic", "epithelium"], "article_id"=>441031, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexander Venn", "Eric Tambutté", "Michael Holcomb", "Denis Allemand", "Sylvie Tambutté"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020013.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pH_measurements_in_and_under_the_calicoblastic_epithelium_of_S_pistillata_/441031", "title"=>"pH measurements in and under the calicoblastic epithelium of <i>S. pistillata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-27 00:17:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386915", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386937"], "description"=>"<div><p>The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification) raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral <em>Stylophora pistillata</em> to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe) under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi) of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["imaging", "shows", "reef", "corals", "elevate", "ph", "calcifying", "seawater"], "article_id"=>136392, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexander Venn", "Eric Tambutté", "Michael Holcomb", "Denis Allemand", "Sylvie Tambutté"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020013.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020013.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Live_Tissue_Imaging_Shows_Reef_Corals_Elevate_pH_under_Their_Calcifying_Tissue_Relative_to_Seawater/136392", "title"=>"Live Tissue Imaging Shows Reef Corals Elevate pH under Their Calcifying Tissue Relative to Seawater", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-05-27 01:46:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/770525"], "description"=>"<p>Images obtained at 1 µm above the coverslip by inverted confocal microscopy. (A,C) 40× (B,D) 100× magnification. (A, B) combined images of SNARF-1 fluorescence obtained at 585 and 640±10 nm in samples stained with SNARF-1 AM and SNARF-1 simultaneously. Images (C, D) transmitted light images of the same area. C = crystal. S = fluid-filled space under the calicoblastic epithelium. CE = calicoblastic epithelium.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ph", "calicoblastic", "epithelium"], "article_id"=>440890, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexander Venn", "Eric Tambutté", "Michael Holcomb", "Denis Allemand", "Sylvie Tambutté"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020013.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_pH_in_the_calicoblastic_epithelium_of_S_pistillata_/440890", "title"=>"Distribution of pH in the calicoblastic epithelium of <i>S. pistillata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-27 00:14:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/770172"], "description"=>"<p>(A, B) Light microscope images taken from above, looking down on sample. (B) Zoom of red square indicated in (A). (C, D) <i>in vivo</i> transmitted light micrographs taken from below looking up through the coverslip, (C) to a focal plane just above the coverslip showing crystals under the coral tissue, and (D) at focal plane of 30 µm above the glass coverslip showing autofluorescence of symbiotic algae (red colour) (image merged with confocal micrograph). (E, F) FESEM images. (E) shows crystals on glass coverslip with tissue removed. Inset in (E) zoom on crystals. (F) shows the apical membrane of the calicoblastic epithelium (membrane usually facing the skeleton) with the crystals and coverslip removed. SW = position of exterior seawater. In (E) and (F) SW denotes position of seawater prior to fixation of the sample. M = distal margin of the sample. C = crystals. CS = Continuous skeleton. CI = impression left by crystal before removal of skeleton.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grown"], "article_id"=>440539, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexander Venn", "Eric Tambutté", "Michael Holcomb", "Denis Allemand", "Sylvie Tambutté"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020013.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_Stylophora_pistillata_grown_on_glass_coverslips_/440539", "title"=>"Morphology of <i>Stylophora pistillata</i> grown on glass coverslips.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-27 00:08:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/770779"], "description"=>"<p>Images obtained 1 µm above the coverslip by confocal microscopy on the same area of tissue before (A) and after (B) 5 h in aquarium conditions. Yellow = SNARF-1 AM in calicoblastic epithelium (CE). Red = SNARF-1 in subcalicoblastic medium (S). C = crystals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["calicoblastic", "epithelium", "crystals"], "article_id"=>441148, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexander Venn", "Eric Tambutté", "Michael Holcomb", "Denis Allemand", "Sylvie Tambutté"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020013.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_relationship_of_the_calicoblastic_epithelium_and_crystals_of_S_pistillata_/441148", "title"=>"Spatial relationship of the calicoblastic epithelium and crystals of <i>S. pistillata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-27 00:19:08"}

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Relative Metric

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