Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid Causes Outbreaks of Spider Mites on Elm Trees in Urban Landscapes
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{"title"=>"Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid causes outbreaks of spider mites on elm trees in urban landscapes", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Adrianna", "last_name"=>"Szczepaniec", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504599066"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott F.", "last_name"=>"Creary", "scopus_author_id"=>"41461054500"}, {"first_name"=>"Kate L.", "last_name"=>"Laskowski", "scopus_author_id"=>"55620225800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan P.", "last_name"=>"Nyrop", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701435262"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Raupp", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603821079"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"International Pest Control", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052234128", "pui"=>"362455985", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0020018", "issn"=>"00208256", "pmid"=>"21655275", "sgr"=>"80052234128"}, "id"=>"ec69350d-fb46-35dc-a92b-9740392b6102", "abstract"=>"Attempts to eradicate alien arthropods often require pesticide applications. An effort to remove an alien beetle from Central Park in New York City, USA, resulted in widespread treatments of trees with the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid. Imidacloprid's systemic activity and mode of entry via roots or trunk injections reduce risk of environmental contamination and limit exposure of non-target organisms to pesticide residues. However, unexpected outbreaks of a formerly innocuous herbivore, Tetranychus schoenei (Acari: Tetranychidae), followed imidacloprid applications to elms in Central Park. This undesirable outcome necessitated an assessment of imidacloprid's impact on communities of arthropods, its effects on predators, and enhancement of the performance of T. schoenei.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neonicotinoid-insecticide-imidacloprid-causes-outbreaks-spider-mites-elm-trees-urban-landscapes", "reader_count"=>72, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>49, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>49}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>2, "Canada"=>4, "United States"=>3, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/769632"], "description"=>"<p>A) Feeding rates (√(mites eaten)/h) of <i>S. punctillum</i> and <i>C. rufilabris</i> were reduced after 3.5 h when mites were reared on foliage from imidacloprid-treated (<i>N</i> = 7) compared to untreated elms (<i>N</i> = 7). (B) Mobility (√mm/s) of <i>S. punctillum</i> and <i>C. rufilabris</i> was significantly reduced after 3.5 h of exposure to spider mites reared on foliage from imidacloprid-treated elms compared to untreated elms. Means±s.e.m. marked with asterisks are significantly different at <i>P</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mobility", "exposed", "imidacloprid"], "article_id"=>440000, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Adrianna Szczepaniec", "Scott F. Creary", "Kate L. Laskowski", "Jan P. Nyrop", "Michael J. Raupp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Feeding_rate_and_mobility_of_S_punctillum_and_C_rufilabris_exposed_to_imidacloprid_through_prey_/440000", "title"=>"Feeding rate and mobility of <i>S. punctillum</i> and <i>C. rufilabris</i> exposed to imidacloprid through prey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-31 00:00:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/769542"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Abundance of arthropods (per cm<sup>2</sup> of leaf area) on imidacloprid-treated elms (<i>N</i> = 10) and on untreated trees (<i>N</i> = 10). Asterisks mark differences in overall abundance of arthropods that were significant within each year (<i>P</i><0.05; Monte Carlo permutation test). At both locations, arthropod communities increased on elms that received imidacloprid. Abundance of spider mites, Tetranychidae, explained most of the variation due to imidacloprid treatments. Pie charts represent percent contribution of the most abundant taxa to the sampled arthropod community over three-year period at each location. (B) Abundance (√(number)/cm<sup>2</sup>) of the spider mite, <i>T. schoenei,</i> on elms treated with imidacloprid (<i>N</i> = 10) and on untreated trees (<i>N</i> = 10) in New York and Maryland. Asterisks mark means±s.e.m. that differed significantly (<i>P</i><0.05). There was a significant interactive effect of treatment and time for both locations and in most years, and means were compared within each date (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018#pone.0020018.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>). Elevated densities of mites were found only on elms treated with imidacloprid. Rarely encountered taxa included arthropods in families Chrysopidae, Coccinellidae, Cecidomyiidae, Aphididae, Saproglyphidae and Thripidae. These arthropods were pooled and categorized as ‘Other’.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["imidacloprid", "arthropod", "communities", "spider", "mite", "abundance", "york"], "article_id"=>439905, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Adrianna Szczepaniec", "Scott F. Creary", "Kate L. Laskowski", "Jan P. Nyrop", "Michael J. Raupp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_imidacloprid_on_arthropod_communities_and_spider_mite_abundance_in_New_York_and_Maryland_/439905", "title"=>"Effect of imidacloprid on arthropod communities and spider mite abundance in New York and Maryland.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-31 02:45:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/769763"], "description"=>"<p>Figure depicts area of leaves (√cm<sup>2</sup>) used in surveys of arthropod community presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018#pone-0020018-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. Elms (treated: <i>N</i> = 10; untreated: <i>N</i> = 10) in New York had a significantly greater leaf area following exposure to imidacloprid in all sampling years, while trees in Maryland (treated: <i>N</i> = 10; untreated: <i>N</i> = 10) were larger in the last year of the study. Means±s.e.m. marked with asterisks are significantly different at <i>P</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["imidacloprid", "elm", "york", "maryland"], "article_id"=>440130, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Adrianna Szczepaniec", "Scott F. Creary", "Kate L. Laskowski", "Jan P. Nyrop", "Michael J. Raupp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_imidacloprid_on_elm_leaf_area_in_New_York_A_and_Maryland_B_/440130", "title"=>"Effect of imidacloprid on elm leaf area in New York (A) and Maryland (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-31 00:02:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/769692"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Effect of imidacloprid delivered through plant tissue. <i>T. schoenei</i> consuming foliage from elms treated with imidacloprid (<i>N</i> = 8) laid significantly more eggs than spider mites feeding on leaves from untreated trees (<i>N</i> = 8), while their longevity was not affected. (B) Topical application of imidacloprid to <i>T. schoenei.</i> Females (<i>N</i> = 30) sprayed with imidacloprid did not exhibit higher fecundity or longevity than <i>T. schoenei</i> sprayed with water (<i>N</i> = 30). Means±s.e.m. marked with asterisks are significantly different at <i>P</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["imidacloprid", "fecundity", "longevity"], "article_id"=>440060, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Adrianna Szczepaniec", "Scott F. Creary", "Kate L. Laskowski", "Jan P. Nyrop", "Michael J. Raupp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_exposure_to_imidacloprid_on_lifetime_fecundity_and_longevity_of_T_schoenei_/440060", "title"=>"Effect of exposure to imidacloprid on lifetime fecundity and longevity of <i>T. schoenei.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-31 00:01:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386666", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386694", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386733", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386777", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386813", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386859", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386906", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386947", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386980"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Attempts to eradicate alien arthropods often require pesticide applications. An effort to remove an alien beetle from Central Park in New York City, USA, resulted in widespread treatments of trees with the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid. Imidacloprid's systemic activity and mode of entry via roots or trunk injections reduce risk of environmental contamination and limit exposure of non-target organisms to pesticide residues. However, unexpected outbreaks of a formerly innocuous herbivore, <em>Tetranychus schoenei</em> (Acari: Tetranychidae), followed imidacloprid applications to elms in Central Park. This undesirable outcome necessitated an assessment of imidacloprid's impact on communities of arthropods, its effects on predators, and enhancement of the performance of <em>T. schoenei</em>.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>By sampling arthropods in elm canopies over three years in two locations, we document changes in the structure of communities following applications of imidacloprid. Differences in community structure were mostly attributable to increases in the abundance of <em>T. schoenei</em> on elms treated with imidacloprid. In laboratory experiments, predators of <em>T. schoenei</em> were poisoned through ingestion of prey exposed to imidacloprid. Imidacloprid's proclivity to elevate fecundity of <em>T. schoenei</em> also contributed to their elevated densities on treated elms.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>This is the first study to report the effects of pesticide applications on the arthropod communities in urban landscapes and demonstrate that imidacloprid increases spider mite fecundity through a plant-mediated mechanism. Laboratory experiments provide evidence that imidacloprid debilitates insect predators of spider mites suggesting that relaxation of top-down regulation combined with enhanced reproduction promoted a non-target herbivore to pest status. With global commerce accelerating the incidence of arthropod invasions, prophylactic applications of pesticides play a major role in eradication attempts. Widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides, however, can disrupt ecosystems tipping the ecological balance in favor of herbivores and creating pest outbreaks.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neonicotinoid", "insecticide", "imidacloprid", "causes", "outbreaks", "spider", "mites", "elm", "trees", "landscapes"], "article_id"=>136319, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Adrianna Szczepaniec", "Scott F. Creary", "Kate L. Laskowski", "Jan P. Nyrop", "Michael J. Raupp"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020018.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>46, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Neonicotinoid_Insecticide_Imidacloprid_Causes_Outbreaks_of_Spider_Mites_on_Elm_Trees_in_Urban_Landscapes/136319", "title"=>"Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid Causes Outbreaks of Spider Mites on Elm Trees in Urban Landscapes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-05-31 01:45:19"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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