Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells by Reducing Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression
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{"title"=>"Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, inhibits migration and invasion of human prostate cancer pc-3 cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinases expression", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Pin Shern", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56140733200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuan Wei", "last_name"=>"Shih", "scopus_author_id"=>"23390316200"}, {"first_name"=>"Hsiang Ching", "last_name"=>"Huang", "scopus_author_id"=>"37093057400"}, {"first_name"=>"Hsing Wen", "last_name"=>"Cheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"52563177100"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79956370706", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0020164", "pui"=>"361809107", "pmid"=>"21629786", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79956370706", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"0883e7c2-6cda-3214-8677-857bba95e302", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin obtained from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), was found to exert anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, the effect of diosgenin on cancer metastasis remains unclear. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of diosgenin on migration and invasion in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Diosgenin inhibited proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of diosgenin, cell migration and invasion were markedly suppressed by in vitro wound healing assay and Boyden chamber invasion assay, respectively. Furthermore, diosgenin reduced the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography assay. The mRNA level of MMP-2, -9, -7 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN) were also suppressed while tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was increased by diosgenin. In addition, diosgenin abolished the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in PC-3 cells and tube formation of endothelial cells. Our immunoblotting assays indicated that diosgenin potently suppressed the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In addition, diosgenin significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), suggesting that diosgenin inhibited NF-κB activity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE The results suggested that diosgenin inhibited migration and invasion of PC-3 cells by reducing MMPs expression. It also inhibited ERK, JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways as well as NF-κB activity. These findings reveal new therapeutic potential for diosgenin in anti-metastatic therapy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/diosgenin-steroidal-saponin-inhibits-migration-invasion-human-prostate-cancer-pc3-cells-reducing-mat", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4, "Chemical Engineering"=>2, "Chemistry"=>10, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772446"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were treated with various concentrations of diosgenin for 24 h and cell invasion assay was performed. (A) The invaded cells were photographed (200× magnification). (B) The invaded PC-3 cells were counted in five random fields in each treatment, and data were calculated from three independent experiments. Data are presented as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. <i>*p</i><0.05, <i>**p</i><0.01, compared with the untreated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diosgenin", "pc-3"], "article_id"=>442823, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_diosgenin_on_invasion_of_PC_3_cells_/442823", "title"=>"Effect of diosgenin on invasion of PC-3 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:11:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772962"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Cells were treated with LY294002, U0126 and SP600125 for 24 h and the cell invasive abilities were performed by Boyden chamber invasion assay. (B) The expression of MMP-2, -9 mRNA were determined and expressed as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. <i>**p</i><0.01, <i>***p</i><0.001, compared with the untreated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PI3K", "inhibitor", "erk", "jnk", "pc-3"], "article_id"=>443330, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PI3K_inhibitor_LY294002_ERK_inhibitor_U0126_and_JNK_inhibitor_SP600125_on_cell_invasion_and_MMP_2_9_expression_of_PC_3_cells_/443330", "title"=>"Effect of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), ERK inhibitor (U0126) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) on cell invasion and MMP-2/9 expression of PC-3 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:13:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773134"], "description"=>"<p>Primer pairs used in Quantitative Real-Time PCR.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pairs", "quantitative", "Real-time"], "article_id"=>443503, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primer_pairs_used_in_Quantitative_Real_Time_PCR_/443503", "title"=>"Primer pairs used in Quantitative Real-Time PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:14:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772271"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were treated with various concentrations of diosgenin for 24 h and 48 h. Cell viability is presented as mean ± S.D. of four independent experiments. <i>***p</i><0.001 compared with the untreated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diosgenin", "viabilities", "pc-3"], "article_id"=>442640, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_diosgenin_on_viabilities_of_PC_3_cell_/442640", "title"=>"Effect of diosgenin on viabilities of PC-3 cell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:10:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772853"], "description"=>"<p>PC-3 cells were treated with various doses of diosgenin for 24 h (A), or 20 µM of diosgenin for 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h (B). The phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 were determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. β-actin was used as a loading control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diosgenin", "phosphorylation"], "article_id"=>443224, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_diosgenin_on_phosphorylation_of_ERK1_2_JNK1_2_and_p38_/443224", "title"=>"Effects of diosgenin on phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:13:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772654"], "description"=>"<p>(A) HUVECs were seeded onto Matrigel and incubated with conditioned medium from PC-3 cells treated with diosgenin for 24 h. After 6 h, the enclosed networks of complete tubes were photographed (100× magnification). (B) The tubular lengths of the cells were measured using Image J software. (C) The mRNA expression of VEGF was determined and presented as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. <i>*p</i><0.05, <i>**p</i><0.01, compared with the untreated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diosgenin", "pc-3", "induced", "endothelial", "vegf"], "article_id"=>443022, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_diosgenin_on_PC_3_induced_tube_formation_of_endothelial_cell_and_VEGF_expression_/443022", "title"=>"Effect of diosgenin on PC-3 induced tube formation of endothelial cell and VEGF expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:12:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773073"], "description"=>"<p>PC-3 cells were treated with various doses of diosgenin for 24 h. (A) The cytosolic and nuclear extracts were prepared and analyzed for IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 translocation. β-actin and C23 were used as a cytosolic and nuclear protein loading control, respectively. (B) Determined levels of IκBα and NF-κB were quantified by densitometric analysis. The densitometric results were expressed as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. <i>*p</i><0.05, <i>**p</i><0.01, <i>***p</i><0.001, compared with the untreated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diosgenin"], "article_id"=>443448, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_diosgenin_on_NF_954_B_activation_/443448", "title"=>"Effects of diosgenin on NF-κB activation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:14:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772338"], "description"=>"<p>Cell monolayers were scraped by a sterile micropipette tip and the cells were treated with various concentrations of diosgenin for 24 h. (A) Cells migrated to the wounded region were photographed (100× magnification). (B) The wound area of the cell cultures were quantified in four fields in each treatment, and data were calculated from three independent experiments. Data are presented as as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. <i>*p</i><0.05, <i>**p</i><0.01, compared with the untreated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diosgenin", "pc-3"], "article_id"=>442710, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_diosgenin_on_migration_of_PC_3_cells_/442710", "title"=>"Effect of diosgenin on migration of PC-3 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:10:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772768"], "description"=>"<p>PC-3 cells were treated with various doses of diosgenin for 24 h (A), or 20 µM of diosgenin for 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h (B). The phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. β-actin was used as a loading control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diosgenin", "phosphorylation", "PI3K"], "article_id"=>443140, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_diosgenin_on_phosphorylation_of_PI3K_and_Akt_/443140", "title"=>"Effects of diosgenin on phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:12:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772574"], "description"=>"<p><b>(</b>A) PC-3 cells were treated with various concentrations of diosgenin for 24 h and the activities of MMP-9 and MMP-2 were determined by gelatin zymography. The expressions of MMP-9 and MMP-2 mRNA (B) and protein (C) were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. β-actin was used as an internal control. (D) The levels of MMP-2, -9, -7, EMMPRIN and TIMP-1,-2 mRNA were expressed as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. <i>*p</i><0.05, <i>**p</i><0.01, compared with the untreated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diosgenin", "activities", "expressions", "emmprin", "pc-3"], "article_id"=>442945, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Pin-Shern Chen", "Yuan-Wei Shih", "Hsiang-Ching Huang", "Hsing-Wen Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020164.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_diosgenin_on_the_activities_and_expressions_of_MMP_2_9_7_EMMPRIN_and_TIMP_1_2_in_PC_3_cells_/442945", "title"=>"Effect of diosgenin on the activities and expressions of MMP-2/9/7, EMMPRIN and TIMP-1/2 in PC-3 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:11:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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