Entrepreneurs, Chance, and the Deterministic Concentration of Wealth
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{"title"=>"Entrepreneurs, chance, and the deterministic concentration of wealth", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joseph E.", "last_name"=>"Fargione", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506206100"}, {"first_name"=>"Clarence", "last_name"=>"Lehman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006435447"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Polasky", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004272772"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960645526", "pui"=>"362190933", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0020728", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"79960645526", "pmid"=>"21814540"}, "id"=>"806337a4-4b8f-3aac-bbec-6c0fd09146e7", "abstract"=>"In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs--individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises--comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes, applied to a small portion of the most fortunate in the population, can efficiently arrest the concentration of wealth at intermediate levels.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/entrepreneurs-chance-deterministic-concentration-wealth", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>7, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Malaysia"=>2, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753671"], "description"=>"<p>All simulations start with an even distribution of wealth. Unless otherwise noted, all simulations were run with 100,000 individuals and a 5% yearly average return on investment. Red lines show the analytically expected trajectories (Eqn. 1); points show the results from individual-based simulations. Three replicate simulations were run for each high variance simulation. (A) Higher variance among individual rates of return increases the rate of wealth concentration. (B) Inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient also increases over time. (C) Wealth concentrates even when the mean growth rate varies over time, such that in some years the total economy grows and in others the economy shrinks. Average annual rates of return were randomly drawn from a normal distribution with % and , with a new value for the economy drawn each year. (D) Population growth and splitting estates among heirs does not significantly reduce rate of wealth concentration. Dashed blue line shows the growing population. (E) A tax on inherited fortunes slows and arrests the concentration of wealth. (F) Immigrants with mean wealth slow but do not arrest the concentration of wealth. Dashed blue line shows population increase from immigration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Economics", "Economic models", "Endogenous growth theory", "Mathematical economics", "General equilibrium model", "Public finance", "Government spending and taxation", "Tax incidence"], "article_id"=>424030, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Fargione", "Clarence Lehman", "Stephen Polasky"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020728.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_of_wealth_over_time_/424030", "title"=>"Concentration of wealth over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:28:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753828"], "description"=>"<p>Solid line represents the best fit for the Pareto distribution () and the dashed curve represents the best fit from our model (). The -axis shows accumulated capital, log scale; the -axis shows the portion of the population having that amount of capital or more, log scale. Both are two-parameter curves.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Economics", "Economic models", "Endogenous growth theory", "Mathematical economics", "General equilibrium model", "Public finance", "Government spending and taxation", "Tax incidence"], "article_id"=>424195, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Fargione", "Clarence Lehman", "Stephen Polasky"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020728.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Actual_distribution_of_U_S_wealth_in_1995_/424195", "title"=>"Actual distribution of U.S. wealth in 1995.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:29:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753756"], "description"=>"<p>In simulations with , % and all 100,000 individuals starting with wealth of 1 at time zero, the lower portion of the wealth distribution is represented by the blue line at time , the red line at time , and the black line at time . Circles indicate the median wealth and diamonds indicate the mean wealth. Note that mean wealth increases much faster than median wealth, while in this case the modal wealth, identified by the peaks of the curves, decreases. Over time, an increasing portion of the population has wealth greater than 20 units (0.01% of the population, 1%, and 18% at , 12, and 31, respectively), which is not depicted because it falls beyond the right boundary of the graph.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Economics", "Economic models", "Endogenous growth theory", "Mathematical economics", "General equilibrium model", "Public finance", "Government spending and taxation", "Tax incidence"], "article_id"=>424122, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Fargione", "Clarence Lehman", "Stephen Polasky"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020728.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modeled_wealth_distribution_/424122", "title"=>"Modeled wealth distribution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:29:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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