Mitochondrial DNA Backgrounds Might Modulate Diabetes Complications Rather than T2DM as a Whole
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{"title"=>"Mitochondrial DNA backgrounds might modulate diabetes complications rather than T2DM as a whole", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alessandro", "last_name"=>"Achilli", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701652869"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna", "last_name"=>"Olivieri", "scopus_author_id"=>"8330210300"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria", "last_name"=>"Pala", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005045607"}, {"first_name"=>"Baharak Hooshiar", "last_name"=>"Kashani", "scopus_author_id"=>"23501623100"}, {"first_name"=>"Valeria", "last_name"=>"Carossa", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643714600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ugo A.", "last_name"=>"Perego", "scopus_author_id"=>"8531773600"}, {"first_name"=>"Francesca", "last_name"=>"Gandini", "scopus_author_id"=>"54890582200"}, {"first_name"=>"Aurelia", "last_name"=>"Santoro", "scopus_author_id"=>"9239078000"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincenza", "last_name"=>"Battaglia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004855733"}, {"first_name"=>"Viola", "last_name"=>"Grugni", "scopus_author_id"=>"34167864100"}, {"first_name"=>"Hovirag", "last_name"=>"Lancioni", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507657468"}, {"first_name"=>"Cristina", "last_name"=>"Sirolla", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602091252"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna Rita", "last_name"=>"Bonfigli", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004849319"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonella", "last_name"=>"Cormio", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602261055"}, {"first_name"=>"Massimo", "last_name"=>"Boemi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004517407"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivano", "last_name"=>"Testa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006147047"}, {"first_name"=>"Ornella", "last_name"=>"Semino", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603787734"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"Ceriello", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102926564"}, {"first_name"=>"Liana", "last_name"=>"Spazzafumo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701756976"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria Nicola", "last_name"=>"Gadaleta", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191159195"}, {"first_name"=>"Maurizio", "last_name"=>"Marra", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195243236"}, {"first_name"=>"Roberto", "last_name"=>"Testa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102786963"}, {"first_name"=>"Claudio", "last_name"=>"Franceschi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56236886700"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"Torroni", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005843426"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21695278", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79958285686", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021029", "sgr"=>"79958285686", "pui"=>"361925002"}, "id"=>"ae675ae8-2def-39de-889e-bdb2566dd708", "abstract"=>"Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in rare and common forms of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Additionally, rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been shown to be causal for T2DM pathogenesis. So far, many studies have investigated the possibility that mtDNA variation might affect the risk of T2DM, however, when found, haplogroup association has been rarely replicated, even in related populations, possibly due to an inadequate level of haplogroup resolution. Effects of mtDNA variation on diabetes complications have also been proposed. However, additional studies evaluating the mitochondrial role on both T2DM and related complications are badly needed. To test the hypothesis of a mitochondrial genome effect on diabetes and its complications, we genotyped the mtDNAs of 466 T2DM patients and 438 controls from a regional population of central Italy (Marche). Based on the most updated mtDNA phylogeny, all 904 samples were classified into 57 different mitochondrial sub-haplogroups, thus reaching an unprecedented level of resolution. We then evaluated whether the susceptibility of developing T2DM or its complications differed among the identified haplogroups, considering also the potential effects of phenotypical and clinical variables. MtDNA backgrounds, even when based on a refined haplogroup classification, do not appear to play a role in developing T2DM despite a possible protective effect for the common European haplogroup H1, which harbors the G3010A transition in the MTRNR2 gene. In contrast, our data indicate that different mitochondrial haplogroups are significantly associated with an increased risk of specific diabetes complications: H (the most frequent European haplogroup) with retinopathy, H3 with neuropathy, U3 with nephropathy, and V with renal failure.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mitochondrial-dna-backgrounds-modulate-diabetes-complications-rather-t2dm-whole", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Korea (South)"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767509"], "description"=>"a<p>These haplogroups (excluding R0a) correspond to those tested in the logistic regression models.</p>b<p>Power percentages were calculated as reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-Samuels1\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>. The number of cases (N<sub>c</sub>) was assumed different in each comparison, while the number of haplogroups (N<sub>H</sub>) was always set at 16. The underlined power values refer to haplogroups H1, R0a and the other haplogroups that were statistically significant in the logistic models (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone-0021029-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>).</p>c<p>H here includes H*, H8 and H9 of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone-0021029-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone-0021029-t003\" target=\"_blank\">3</a>.</p>d<p>HV here includes HV* and HV0 of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone-0021029-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone-0021029-t003\" target=\"_blank\">3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["calculated", "haplogroup"], "article_id"=>437854, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Power_values_calculated_for_each_haplogroup_in_different_comparisons_/437854", "title"=>"Power values calculated for each haplogroup in different comparisons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 02:10:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767575"], "description"=>"a<p><i>Significance (p-value)</i> relative to the final model considering all slopes  =  zero (no effect of the included I.V., taken together, on the outcome), obtained by the likelihood ratio test. The symbol § highlights significant values (α≤0.003).</p>b<p>Odd ratio.</p>c<p>Confidence interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analyses", "haplogroups", "t2dm"], "article_id"=>437915, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Logistic_regression_analyses_of_haplogroups_associated_with_T2DM_complications_/437915", "title"=>"Logistic-regression analyses of haplogroups associated with T2DM complications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 02:11:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767153"], "description"=>"<p>The schematic classification of the R0a sub-clades is based on Černý et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-ern1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>, while the R0a'b node is newly defined on the basis of the complete genome #7. Sequences #1–7 were obtained in the course of this study and are from Italian diabetic patients: sequences #1–6 (GenBank accession numbers JF717355-JF717360) are from subjects of the Marche region sample, while sequence #7 (GenBank accession number JF717361) is from a diabetic patient not included in the current study because the maternal ancestry was from a different region (Campania, Southern Italy). Three control mtDNA sequences from the literature (GenBank accession numbers HM185239, HM185241 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-ern1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a> and AY738940 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-Achilli1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>), which clustered in the same sub-branches of the sequences obtained from the diabetic subjects, were also included in the tree. The position of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-Andrews1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a> – a member of haplogroup H2a2 – is indicated for reading off sequence motifs. Mutations are shown on the branches; they are transitions unless a base is explicitly indicated. The prefix @ designates reversions, while suffixes indicate transversions (to A, G, C, or T), insertions (+), gene locus (∼t, tRNA; ∼r, rRNA; nc, non coding region outside of the control region) and synonymous or non synonymous changes (s or ns). Recurrent mutations within the phylogeny are underlined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogeny", "haplogroup", "r0a", "encompassing", "mtdna", "sequences", "diabetic"], "article_id"=>437487, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>45, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_phylogeny_of_haplogroup_R0a_encompassing_seven_complete_mtDNA_sequences_from_diabetic_patients_/437487", "title"=>"Schematic phylogeny of haplogroup R0a encompassing seven complete mtDNA sequences from diabetic patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 02:04:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767862"], "description"=>"a<p>Values are means ± standard deviation (or absolute number and percentages).</p>b<p>BMI ≥30.</p>c<p>Diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III).</p>d<p>HOMA-IR >2.5.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "diabetic", "patients"], "article_id"=>438203, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_characteristics_of_diabetic_patients_and_controls_/438203", "title"=>"Clinical characteristics of diabetic patients and controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 02:16:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767637"], "description"=>"a<p>The candidate haplogroup was analyzed in relation to the patients' traits and complications reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone-0021029-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>b<p><i>Significance (p-value)</i> relative to the final model considering all slopes  =  zero (no effect of the included I.V., taken together, on the outcome), obtained by the likelihood ratio test. The symbol § highlights significant values (α≤0.003).</p>c<p>H here represents the entire clade, thus including H*, H1, H3, H5, H6 and H9.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["logistic-regression", "analyses", "employed", "characteristics"], "article_id"=>437975, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_8220_Inverted_8221_logistic_regression_analyses_employed_to_evaluate_characteristics_associated_with_candidate_haplogroups_/437975", "title"=>"“Inverted” logistic-regression analyses employed to evaluate characteristics associated with candidate haplogroups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 02:12:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385415", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385445", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385450", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385460", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385470", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385476", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385483", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385491"], "description"=>"<div><p>Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in rare and common forms of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Additionally, rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been shown to be causal for T2DM pathogenesis. So far, many studies have investigated the possibility that mtDNA variation might affect the risk of T2DM, however, when found, haplogroup association has been rarely replicated, even in related populations, possibly due to an inadequate level of haplogroup resolution. Effects of mtDNA variation on diabetes complications have also been proposed. However, additional studies evaluating the mitochondrial role on both T2DM and related complications are badly needed. To test the hypothesis of a mitochondrial genome effect on diabetes and its complications, we genotyped the mtDNAs of 466 T2DM patients and 438 controls from a regional population of central Italy (Marche). Based on the most updated mtDNA phylogeny, all 904 samples were classified into 57 different mitochondrial sub-haplogroups, thus reaching an unprecedented level of resolution. We then evaluated whether the susceptibility of developing T2DM or its complications differed among the identified haplogroups, considering also the potential effects of phenotypical and clinical variables. MtDNA backgrounds, even when based on a refined haplogroup classification, do not appear to play a role in developing T2DM despite a possible protective effect for the common European haplogroup H1, which harbors the G3010A transition in the MTRNR2 gene. In contrast, our data indicate that different mitochondrial haplogroups are significantly associated with an increased risk of specific diabetes complications: H (the most frequent European haplogroup) with retinopathy, H3 with neuropathy, U3 with nephropathy, and V with renal failure.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mitochondrial", "dna", "backgrounds", "modulate", "complications", "t2dm"], "article_id"=>136088, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mitochondrial_DNA_Backgrounds_Might_Modulate_Diabetes_Complications_Rather_than_T2DM_as_a_Whole/136088", "title"=>"Mitochondrial DNA Backgrounds Might Modulate Diabetes Complications Rather than T2DM as a Whole", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 01:41:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767344"], "description"=>"<p>The distinguishing mutational motifs for the haplogroups shown in the tree are reported on the branches and they are transitions unless a base is explicitly indicated. The position of the rCRS <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-Andrews1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a> is indicated for reading off sequence motifs. Suffixes indicate transversions (to A), insertions (+), synonymous or non-synonymous changes (s or ns), gene locus (for tRNA, rRNA and non-synonymous mutations – following the nomenclature proposed by MITOMAP). A role for haplogroups R0a/R0a2, H, H1, H3/H3 h, V, and U3/U3a has been proposed in this study. The protective or pejorative haplogroup effect is indicated by down or up arrows. Continuous arrow lines mean highly significant values. Previous analyses found associations (gray arrows) with J1 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-Feder1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>, JT and T <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-Crispim1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>, and N9a <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-Fuku1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029#pone.0021029-Tanaka1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["encompassing", "roots", "haplogroups", "t2dm"], "article_id"=>437686, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MtDNA_tree_encompassing_the_roots_of_haplogroups_associated_with_T2DM_and_or_its_complications_/437686", "title"=>"MtDNA tree encompassing the roots of haplogroups associated with T2DM and/or its complications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 02:08:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767789"], "description"=>"a<p>Haplogroup frequencies in males and females are reported for congruency with previous tables. However, gender was not considered in statistical analyses dealing with complications.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mtdna", "haplogroups", "sub-haplogroups", "patients", "diabetic", "phenotype", "affected", "complications", "somatic", "cardiac", "peripheral", "artery", "occlusive", "renal"], "article_id"=>438111, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequencies_of_mtDNA_haplogroups_and_sub_haplogroups_in_patients_with_only_the_diabetic_phenotype_and_diabetic_patients_also_affected_by_at_least_one_or_two_of_six_common_complications_retinopathy_somatic_neuropathy_cardiac_ischemia_nephropathy_periphera/438111", "title"=>"Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups and sub-haplogroups in patients with only the diabetic phenotype and diabetic patients also affected by at least one or two of six common complications [retinopathy, somatic neuropathy, cardiac ischemia, nephropathy, peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD), and/or renal failure].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 02:15:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767708"], "description"=>"a<p>H* is a paragroup that encompasses all H mtDNAs that did not belong to any of the tested subclades of H.</p>b<p>Without H.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mitochondrial", "dna", "haplogroups", "sub-haplogroups", "diabetic", "patients"], "article_id"=>438047, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Maria Pala", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Valeria Carossa", "Ugo A. Perego", "Francesca Gandini", "Aurelia Santoro", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Viola Grugni", "Hovirag Lancioni", "Cristina Sirolla", "Anna Rita Bonfigli", "Antonella Cormio", "Massimo Boemi", "Ivano Testa", "Ornella Semino", "Antonio Ceriello", "Liana Spazzafumo", "Maria Nicola Gadaleta", "Maurizio Marra", "Roberto Testa", "Claudio Franceschi", "Antonio Torroni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021029.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequencies_of_the_major_mitochondrial_DNA_haplogroups_and_sub_haplogroups_in_diabetic_patients_and_controls_/438047", "title"=>"Frequencies of the major mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and sub-haplogroups in diabetic patients and controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-09 02:14:07"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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