Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions
Publication Date
June 29, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Carol Tenopir, Suzie Allard, Kimberly Douglass, Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, et al
Volume
6
Issue
6
Pages
e21101
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0021101
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21738610
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3126798
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21738610
Web of Science
000292290100013
Scopus
79959648792
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/data-sharing-scientists-practices-perceptions
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{"title"=>"Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Carol", "last_name"=>"Tenopir", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005106498"}, {"first_name"=>"Suzie", "last_name"=>"Allard", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006450046"}, {"first_name"=>"Kimberly", "last_name"=>"Douglass", "scopus_author_id"=>"45761077100"}, {"first_name"=>"Arsev Umur", "last_name"=>"Aydinoglu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36701092900"}, {"first_name"=>"Lei", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55714311800"}, {"first_name"=>"Eleanor", "last_name"=>"Read", "scopus_author_id"=>"14624105700"}, {"first_name"=>"Maribeth", "last_name"=>"Manoff", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603363776"}, {"first_name"=>"Mike", "last_name"=>"Frame", "scopus_author_id"=>"36122784600"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959648792", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021101", "sgr"=>"79959648792", "arxiv"=>"0803973233", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21738610", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362031266"}, "id"=>"53f6dec5-1229-34d4-9d9d-a6c8a067a2ed", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers--data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/data-sharing-scientists-practices-perceptions", "reader_count"=>676, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>27, "Librarian"=>119, "Researcher"=>156, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>27, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>111, "Student > Postgraduate"=>24, "Student > Master"=>84, "Other"=>54, "Student > Bachelor"=>26, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>31}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>27, "Librarian"=>119, "Researcher"=>156, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>27, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>111, "Student > Postgraduate"=>24, "Student > Master"=>84, "Other"=>54, "Student > Bachelor"=>26, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>31}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>19, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>131, "Arts and Humanities"=>15, "Philosophy"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>14, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>170, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4, "Engineering"=>26, "Environmental Science"=>39, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>3, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>27, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>160, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Design"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>17}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>39}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>26}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>131}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>170}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>14}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>27}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>160}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>19}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>15}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hong Kong"=>1, "United States"=>72, "Malaysia"=>2, "Portugal"=>5, "Iceland"=>1, "Greece"=>2, "Saudi Arabia"=>1, "Netherlands"=>4, "Sweden"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>6, "Slovenia"=>2, "France"=>6, "Chile"=>1, "Croatia"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Philippines"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>23, "Switzerland"=>5, "India"=>2, "Spain"=>11, "New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>10, "Belgium"=>1, "Norway"=>3, "Botswana"=>1, "Finland"=>3, "Denmark"=>2, "Italy"=>4, "Mexico"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Australia"=>4, "Germany"=>9, "Indonesia"=>2}, "group_count"=>74}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761635"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 71.679, p = .000;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 41.985, p = .044;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 43.649, p = .030.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing", "reuse"], "article_id"=>432002, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t020", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conditions_for_data_sharing_for_reuse_by_subject_discipline_/432002", "title"=>"Conditions for data sharing for reuse by subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:33:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761122"], "description"=>"<p>\n <i>χ<sup>2</sup> = 73.265, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing"], "article_id"=>431491, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_sharing_by_subject_discipline_/431491", "title"=>"Data sharing by subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:24:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760997"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 22.598, p = .000;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 33.678, p = .000;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 16.981, p = .002;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 18.068, p = .001;</i></p>5<p>\n <i>χ2 = 10.793, p = .029;</i></p>6<p>\n <i>χ2 = 21.447, p = .000;</i></p>7<p>\n <i>χ2 = 21.092, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431365, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t030", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Organizational_involvement_by_activity_/431365", "title"=>"Organizational involvement by activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760747"], "description"=>"<p>Data reuse.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431113, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_reuse_/431113", "title"=>"Data reuse.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:18:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760440"], "description"=>"<p>Data access.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>430807, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_access_/430807", "title"=>"Data access.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:13:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760592"], "description"=>"<p>Data tools.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>430957, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_tools_/430957", "title"=>"Data tools.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:15:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761393"], "description"=>"<p>\n <i>χ2 = 12.270, p = .015.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431763, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t029", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_access_by_activity_/431763", "title"=>"Data access by activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:29:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761266"], "description"=>"<p>Reasons for not making data electronically available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["making", "electronically"], "article_id"=>431636, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reasons_for_not_making_data_electronically_available_/431636", "title"=>"Reasons for not making data electronically available.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:27:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760633"], "description"=>"<p>Data issues.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431000, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_issues_/431000", "title"=>"Data issues.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:16:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761530"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 7.344, p = .025;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 20.386, p = .000;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 6.082, p = .048.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431899, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t027", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Using_others_data_by_age_group_/431899", "title"=>"Using others' data by age group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:31:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760891"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 28.331, p = .000;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 24.507, p = .002;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 17.579, p = .025;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 42.956, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing", "geographic"], "article_id"=>431262, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t035", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_for_data_sharing_by_geographic_location_/431262", "title"=>"for data sharing by geographic location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:21:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761024"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 20.009, p = .010;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 18.201, p = .020.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geographic"], "article_id"=>431397, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t031", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Satisfaction_by_geographic_location_/431397", "title"=>"Satisfaction by geographic location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:23:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761159"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ<sup>2</sup> = 45.210, p = .021;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ<sup>2</sup> = 47.363, p = .013;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ<sup>2</sup> = 42.346, p = .040.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431528, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Satisfaction_for_data_management_by_subject_discipline_/431528", "title"=>"Satisfaction for data management by subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:25:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761671"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 17.444, p = .026;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 21.800, p = .005;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 30.504, p = .000;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 45.763, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["issues"], "article_id"=>432043, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t023", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Organizational_involvement_in_data_issues_by_age_group_/432043", "title"=>"Organizational involvement in data issues by age group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:34:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761292"], "description"=>"<p>Conditions for data sharing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431661, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conditions_for_data_sharing_/431661", "title"=>"Conditions for data sharing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:27:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760507"], "description"=>"<p>Primary work sector.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>430878, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primary_work_sector_/430878", "title"=>"Primary work sector.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:14:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760786"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 15.141, p = .001;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 6.360, p = .042;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 7.307, p = .026;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 11.465, p = .003;</i></p>5<p>\n <i>χ2 = 38.343, p = .000;</i></p>6<p>\n <i>χ2 = 6.482, p = .039;</i></p>7<p>\n <i>χ2 = 11.170, p = .004;</i></p>8<p>\n <i>χ2 = 17.102, p = .000;</i></p>9<p>\n <i>χ2 = 33.238, p = .000;</i></p>10<p>\n <i>χ2 = 24.774, p = .000;</i></p>11<p>\n <i>χ2 = 21.989, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geographic"], "article_id"=>431159, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t036", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Others_using_data_by_geographic_location_/431159", "title"=>"Others using data by geographic location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:19:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760669"], "description"=>"<p>Data types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431038, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_types_/431038", "title"=>"Data types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:17:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761438"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 11.479, p = .022;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 12.122, p = .016.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing"], "article_id"=>431808, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t028", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conditions_for_data_sharing_by_activity_/431808", "title"=>"Conditions for data sharing by activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760929"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 24.102, p = .002;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 34.898, p = .000;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 36.098, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geographic"], "article_id"=>431299, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t032", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Satisfaction_with_data_management_by_geographic_location_/431299", "title"=>"Satisfaction with data management by geographic location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:21:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761568"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 7.180, p = .028;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 18.603, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431940, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t026", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Others_using_data_by_age_group_/431940", "title"=>"Others using data by age group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:32:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760549"], "description"=>"<p>Organizational involvement in data issues.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>430920, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Organizational_involvement_in_data_issues_/430920", "title"=>"Organizational involvement in data issues.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:15:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761060"], "description"=>"<p>Others using data & using others' data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431433, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Others_using_data_amp_using_others_data_/431433", "title"=>"Others using data & using others' data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:23:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761193"], "description"=>"<p>Data sharing practices.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing"], "article_id"=>431565, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_sharing_practices_/431565", "title"=>"Data sharing practices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:26:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761712"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 20.469, p = .005;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 15.439, p = .031;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 23.199, p = .002;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 35.590, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>432079, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t022", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Using_others_data_by_subject_discipline_/432079", "title"=>"Using others' data by subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:34:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761326"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ<sup>2</sup> = 52.376, p = .003;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ<sup>2</sup> = 48.831, p = .009.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reuse"], "article_id"=>431696, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_reuse_by_subject_discipline_/431696", "title"=>"Data reuse by subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:28:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382255"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing", "practices", "perceptions"], "article_id"=>135511, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>53, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Data_Sharing_by_Scientists_Practices_and_Perceptions/135511", "title"=>"Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 01:31:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760819"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 11.484, p = .003;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 6.328, p = .042;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 6.667, p = .036;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 16.738, p = .000;</i></p>5<p>\n <i>χ2 = 33.218, p = .000;</i></p>6<p>\n <i>χ2 = 12.621, p = .002;</i></p>7<p>\n <i>χ2 = 14.213, p = .001;</i></p>8<p>\n <i>χ2 = 34.383, p = .000;</i></p>9<p>\n <i>χ2 = 25.215, p = .000;</i></p>10<p>\n <i>χ2 = 21.227, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geographic"], "article_id"=>431192, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t037", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Using_others_data_by_geographic_region_/431192", "title"=>"Using others' data by geographic region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:19:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761469"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 16.072, p = .041;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 19.507, p = .012;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 15.620, p = .048.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing"], "article_id"=>431839, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t025", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_sharing_by_age_group_/431839", "title"=>"Data sharing by age group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:30:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761603"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 17.514, p = .014;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 15.076, p = .035;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 14.610, p = .041;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 24.282, p = .001;</i></p>5<p>\n <i>χ2 = 17.680, p = .014;</i></p>6<p>\n <i>χ2 = 35.158, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431970, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t021", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Using_others_data_by_subject_discipline_/431970", "title"=>"Using others' data by subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:32:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760710"], "description"=>"<p>Metadata standards.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431076, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metadata_standards_/431076", "title"=>"Metadata standards.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:17:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760963"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 21.461, p = .006;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 21.562, p = .006;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 25.298, p = .001;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 17.585, p = .025;</i></p>5<p>\n <i>χ2 = 23.352, p = .003.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["issues", "geographic"], "article_id"=>431334, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t033", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Organizational_involvement_in_data_issues_by_geographic_location_/431334", "title"=>"Organizational involvement in data issues by geographic location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:22:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761096"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ<sup>2</sup> = 47.251, p = .013.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing"], "article_id"=>431468, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conditions_for_data_sharing_by_subject_discipline_/431468", "title"=>"Conditions for data sharing by subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:24:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761227"], "description"=>"<p>Data sharing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>431597, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_sharing_/431597", "title"=>"Data sharing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:26:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760333"], "description"=>"<p>Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), Stages of the research and data lifecycle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["systems", "stages"], "article_id"=>430703, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Joint_Information_Systems_Committee_JISC_Stages_of_the_research_and_data_lifecycle_/430703", "title"=>"Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), Stages of the research and data lifecycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:11:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761359"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 46.693, p = .015;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 69.438, p = .000;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 56.836, p = .001;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 43.404, p = .032.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharing"], "article_id"=>431728, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t019", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conditions_for_data_sharing_by_subject_discipline_/431728", "title"=>"Conditions for data sharing by subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:28:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760472"], "description"=>"<p>Subject discipline.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computer science", "science policy"], "article_id"=>430838, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subject_discipline_/430838", "title"=>"Subject discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:13:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760857"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 52.125, p = .000;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 41.971, p = .000;</i></p>3<p>\n <i>χ2 = 41.022, p = .000;</i></p>4<p>\n <i>χ2 = 17.484, p = .025.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reuse", "geographic"], "article_id"=>431223, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t034", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_reuse_by_geographic_location_/431223", "title"=>"Data reuse by geographic location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:20:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761493"], "description"=>"1<p>\n <i>χ2 = 19.082, p = .014;</i></p>2<p>\n <i>χ2 = 29.320, p = .000.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reuse"], "article_id"=>431866, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Carol Tenopir", "Suzie Allard", "Kimberly Douglass", "Arsev Umur Aydinoglu", "Lei Wu", "Eleanor Read", "Maribeth Manoff", "Mike Frame"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.t024", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_reuse_by_age_group_/431866", "title"=>"Data reuse by age group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:31:06"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[355, 609, 735, 840, 944, 1029, 1109, 1193, 1255, 1320, 1391, 1469, 1540, 1608, 1683, 1753, 1824, 1905, 1967, 2042, 2117, 2189, 2240, 2300, 2392, 2452, 2509, 2569, 2635, 2710, 2772, 2846, 2882, 2956, 3014, 3086, 3139]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[331, 535, 647, 744, 844, 946, 1026, 1107, 1176, 1235, 1292, 1362, 1432, 1501, 1565, 1632, 1688, 1764, 1827, 1880, 1949, 2007, 2080, 2146, 2214, 2260, 2337, 2405, 2464, 2520, 2575, 2661, 2717, 2785, 2835, 2892, 2961]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 571, 709, 823, 937, 1038, 1133, 1216, 1298, 1370, 1447, 1518, 1588, 1656, 1725, 1790, 1856, 1926, 1992, 2054, 2118, 2182, 2242, 2301, 2363, 2425, 2484, 2544, 2602, 2662, 2716, 2776, 2841, 2901, 2960, 3016, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[344, 630, 756, 876, 981, 1083, 1179, 1272, 1346, 1421, 1508, 1583, 1659, 1744, 1809, 1891, 1954, 2030, 2105, 2174, 2247, 2324, 2386, 2441, 2502, 2557, 2621, 2685, 2753, 2825, 2882, 2935, 2989, 3052, 3117, 3181, 3242]}]}
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