A Stated Preference Investigation into the Chinese Demand for Farmed vs. Wild Bear Bile
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{"title"=>"A stated preference investigation into the chinese demand for farmed vs. Wild bear bile", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Adam J.", "last_name"=>"Dutton", "scopus_author_id"=>"23484846900"}, {"first_name"=>"Cameron", "last_name"=>"Hepburn", "scopus_author_id"=>"9741754000"}, {"first_name"=>"David W.", "last_name"=>"Macdonald", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401463172"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362184566", "sgr"=>"79960589955", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21799733", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960589955", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021243", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"4715c455-cdb0-35e2-91d8-76f94be27fe1", "abstract"=>"Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/stated-preference-investigation-chinese-demand-farmed-vs-wild-bear-bile", "reader_count"=>177, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>47, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>47, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>13, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>80, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>6, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>53, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>13}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>53}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>80}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "United Arab Emirates"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>2, "Canada"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379524"], "description"=>"<div><p>Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stated", "chinese", "farmed", "bile"], "article_id"=>135008, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Stated_Preference_Investigation_into_the_Chinese_Demand_for_Farmed_vs_Wild_Bear_Bile/135008", "title"=>"A Stated Preference Investigation into the Chinese Demand for Farmed vs. Wild Bear Bile", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:23:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754079"], "description"=>"<p>For each function farmed bear bile is held at ¥30 per treatment and these are the results under the “serious” scenario. The CV demand function presents demand in the absence of farmed bear bile whilst the others describe two possible functions when competing with farmed bear bile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["functions"], "article_id"=>424454, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_set_of_estimated_demand_functions_for_wild_bear_bile_/424454", "title"=>"A set of estimated demand functions for wild bear bile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:14:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754186"], "description"=>"<p>For each function farmed bear bile is held at ¥90 per treatment and these are the results under the “serious” scenario. The CV demand function presents demand in the absence of farmed bear bile whilst the others describe two possible functions when competing with farmed bear bile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["functions"], "article_id"=>424567, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_set_of_estimated_demand_functions_for_wild_bear_bile_/424567", "title"=>"A set of estimated demand functions for wild bear bile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:16:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754244"], "description"=>"<p>For each function farmed bear bile is held at ¥30 per treatment and these are the results under the “non-serious” scenario. The CV demand function presents demand in the absence of farmed bear bile whilst the other describes demand when competing with farmed bear bile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["functions"], "article_id"=>424623, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_set_of_estimated_demand_functions_for_wild_bear_bile_/424623", "title"=>"A set of estimated demand functions for wild bear bile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:17:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754341"], "description"=>"<p>For each function farmed bear bile is held at ¥90 per treatment and these are the results under the “non-serious” scenario. The CV demand function presents demand in the absence of farmed bear bile whilst the other describes demand when competing with farmed bear bile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["functions"], "article_id"=>424723, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_set_of_estimated_demand_functions_for_wild_bear_bile_/424723", "title"=>"A set of estimated demand functions for wild bear bile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:18:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754446"], "description"=>"<p>The number of respondents willing to buy wild bear bile at each price are presented for rural, urban and as a weighted average for all areas as percentages. Standard errors are presented in brackets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contingent", "valuation"], "article_id"=>424820, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.t010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_contingent_valuation_results_for_the_8220_non_serious_8221_scenario_/424820", "title"=>"Summary of contingent valuation results for the “non-serious” scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:20:20"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754503"], "description"=>"<p>AIC: 2619.8 Correct No 0.57% Correct Yes 0.77% Total Correct 0.69%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["binary", "logistic", "bile"], "article_id"=>424876, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.t009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chosen_binary_logistic_model_of_wild_bear_bile_choice_in_the_8220_non_serious_8221_scenario_/424876", "title"=>"Chosen binary logistic model of wild bear bile choice in the “non-serious” scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:21:16"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754569"], "description"=>"<p>R<sup>2</sup> 0.8792; P 0.0018.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["linear", "regression", "bile", "percentages"], "article_id"=>424942, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Log_Linear_regression_of_wild_bile_choice_percentages_against_price_under_the_8220_serious_8221_scenario_/424942", "title"=>"Log Linear regression of wild bile choice percentages against price under the “serious” scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:22:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754602"], "description"=>"<p>The number of respondents willing to buy wild bear bile at each price are presented for rural, urban and as a weighted average for all areas as percentages. Standard errors are presented in brackets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contingent", "valuation"], "article_id"=>424977, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.t006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_contingent_valuation_results_for_the_8220_serious_8221_scenario_/424977", "title"=>"Summary of contingent valuation results for the “serious” scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:22:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754633"], "description"=>"<p>R<sup>2</sup> 0.995; P 0.005.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["linear", "regression", "contingent", "valuation"], "article_id"=>425005, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.t007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Log_Linear_regression_of_contingent_valuation_results_under_the_8220_serious_8221_scenario_/425005", "title"=>"Log Linear regression of contingent valuation results under the “serious” scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754660"], "description"=>"<p>Sampling points.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology"], "article_id"=>425042, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sampling_points_/425042", "title"=>"Sampling points.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:24:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754690"], "description"=>"<p>The sample values are adjusted for the bias towards urban respondents. Chinese statistical yearbook values are from the 2006 edition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "chinese"], "article_id"=>425071, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparing_education_levels_in_the_sample_and_in_the_Chinese_Population_/425071", "title"=>"Comparing education levels in the sample and in the Chinese Population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:24:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754726"], "description"=>"<p>Comparing average yearly household income by area type between the sample and the Chinese population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["yearly", "chinese"], "article_id"=>425100, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Adam J. Dutton", "Cameron Hepburn", "David W. Macdonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021243.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparing_average_yearly_household_income_by_area_type_between_the_sample_and_the_Chinese_population_/425100", "title"=>"Comparing average yearly household income by area type between the sample and the Chinese population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:25:00"}
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PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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