Qualitative Real-Time Schlieren and Shadowgraph Imaging of Human Exhaled Airflows: An Aid to Aerosol Infection Control
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{"title"=>"Qualitative real-time schlieren and shadowgraph imaging of human exhaled airflows: An aid to aerosol infection control", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julian W.", "last_name"=>"Tang", "scopus_author_id"=>"10341387300"}, {"first_name"=>"Andre D G", "last_name"=>"Nicolle", "scopus_author_id"=>"37034669800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jovan", "last_name"=>"Pantelic", "scopus_author_id"=>"35272981200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mingxiu", "last_name"=>"Jiang", "scopus_author_id"=>"42761686700"}, {"first_name"=>"Chandra", "last_name"=>"Sekhr", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003540546"}, {"first_name"=>"David K W", "last_name"=>"Cheong", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005497222"}, {"first_name"=>"Kwok Wai", "last_name"=>"Tham", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004310695"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959483827", "pui"=>"361997096", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021392", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"79959483827", "pmid"=>"21731730"}, "id"=>"4b224c41-6d56-3236-a5e2-20fff606b557", "abstract"=>"Using a newly constructed airflow imaging system, airflow patterns were visualized that were associated with common, everyday respiratory activities (e.g. breathing, talking, laughing, whistling). The effectiveness of various interventions (e.g. putting hands and tissues across the mouth and nose) to reduce the potential transmission of airborne infection, whilst coughing and sneezing, were also investigated. From the digital video footage recorded, it was seen that both coughing and sneezing are relatively poorly contained by commonly used configurations of single-handed shielding maneuvers. Only some but not all of the forward momentum of the cough and sneeze puffs are curtailed with various hand techniques, and the remaining momentum is disseminated in a large puff in the immediate vicinity of the cougher, which may still act as a nearby source of infection. The use of a tissue (in this case, 4-ply, opened and ready in the hand) proved to be surprisingly effective, though the effectiveness of this depends on the tissue remaining intact and not ripping apart. Interestingly, the use of a novel 'coughcatcher' device appears to be relatively effective in containing coughs and sneezes. One aspect that became evident during the experimental procedures was that the effectiveness of all of these barrier interventions is very much dependent on the speed with which the user can put them into position to cover the mouth and nose effectively.From these qualitative schlieren and shadowgraph imaging experiments, it is clear that making some effort to contain one's cough or sneeze puffs is worthwhile. Obviously, there will be a large amount of variation between individuals in the exact hand or tissue (the most common methods) configuration used for this and other practical factors may hinder such maneuvers in daily life, for example, when carrying shopping bags or managing young children.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/qualitative-realtime-schlieren-shadowgraph-imaging-human-exhaled-airflows-aid-aerosol-infection-cont", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>11, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Energy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>11}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/384036", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/384142", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/384216", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/384291"], "description"=>"<div><p>Using a newly constructed airflow imaging system, airflow patterns were visualized that were associated with common, everyday respiratory activities (e.g. breathing, talking, laughing, whistling). The effectiveness of various interventions (e.g. putting hands and tissues across the mouth and nose) to reduce the potential transmission of airborne infection, whilst coughing and sneezing, were also investigated. From the digital video footage recorded, it was seen that both coughing and sneezing are relatively poorly contained by commonly used configurations of single-handed shielding maneuvers. Only some but not all of the forward momentum of the cough and sneeze puffs are curtailed with various hand techniques, and the remaining momentum is disseminated in a large puff in the immediate vicinity of the cougher, which may still act as a nearby source of infection. The use of a tissue (in this case, 4-ply, opened and ready in the hand) proved to be surprisingly effective, though the effectiveness of this depends on the tissue remaining intact and not ripping apart. Interestingly, the use of a novel ‘coughcatcher’ device appears to be relatively effective in containing coughs and sneezes. One aspect that became evident during the experimental procedures was that the effectiveness of all of these barrier interventions is very much dependent on the speed with which the user can put them into position to cover the mouth and nose effectively.</p> <p>From these qualitative schlieren and shadowgraph imaging experiments, it is clear that making some effort to contain one's cough or sneeze puffs is worthwhile. Obviously, there will be a large amount of variation between individuals in the exact hand or tissue (the most common methods) configuration used for this and other practical factors may hinder such maneuvers in daily life, for example, when carrying shopping bags or managing young children.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["qualitative", "Real-time", "schlieren", "shadowgraph", "imaging", "exhaled", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>135832, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre D. G. Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Mingxiu Jiang", "Chandra Sekhr", "David K. W. Cheong", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021392.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021392.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021392.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021392.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Qualitative_Real_Time_Schlieren_and_Shadowgraph_Imaging_of_Human_Exhaled_Airflows_An_Aid_to_Aerosol_Infection_Control/135832", "title"=>"Qualitative Real-Time Schlieren and Shadowgraph Imaging of Human Exhaled Airflows: An Aid to Aerosol Infection Control", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-22 01:37:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/763577"], "description"=>"<p>Test subjects (human volunteers) typically stand about 1 meter in front and to one side (indicated by ‘test area’), and face across the mirror to maximize the reflective mirror surface within which their exhaled airflows can be visualized.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["schlieren", "optical", "imaging"], "article_id"=>433947, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Virology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre D. G. Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Mingxiu Jiang", "Chandra Sekhr", "David K. W. Cheong", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021392.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_schlieren_optical_imaging_system_set_up_/433947", "title"=>"Schematic of schlieren optical imaging system set-up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-22 01:05:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/763651"], "description"=>"<p>The LED light source is shaped into a vertical slit positioned just in front of the camera lens. When the subject is in focus, the knife edge (or razor blade painted white as shown here) is moved carefully into the path of the LED beam, cutting off part of its lateral aspect, to give the schlieren or shadowgraph effect.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Virology", "public health and epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Computational biology", "respiratory medicine"], "article_id"=>434017, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Virology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre D. G. Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Mingxiu Jiang", "Chandra Sekhr", "David K. W. Cheong", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021392.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Camera_and_light_source_set_up_/434017", "title"=>"Camera and light source set-up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-22 01:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/763748"], "description"=>"<p>The exhalation puffs can be seen as disturbances in the ‘texture’ in front of the head (images obtained using a Nikon D7000 SLR in HD 1920×1080 live video mode).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["schlieren"], "article_id"=>434121, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Virology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre D. G. Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Mingxiu Jiang", "Chandra Sekhr", "David K. W. Cheong", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021392.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_position_of_a_single_subject_in_front_of_the_schlieren_mirror_/434121", "title"=>"Typical position of a single subject in front of the schlieren mirror.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-22 01:08:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/763859"], "description"=>"<p>For some experiments, two subjects may face each other across the mirror in order to visualize how their exhaled airflows interact during, e.g. during normal conversation (images obtained using a Nikon D7000 SLR in HD 1920×1080 live video mode).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subjects", "schlieren"], "article_id"=>434231, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Virology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Julian W. Tang", "Andre D. G. Nicolle", "Jovan Pantelic", "Mingxiu Jiang", "Chandra Sekhr", "David K. W. Cheong", "Kwok Wai Tham"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021392.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_subjects_in_position_in_front_of_the_schlieren_mirror_/434231", "title"=>"Two subjects in position in front of the schlieren mirror.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-22 01:10:31"}

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Relative Metric

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