The Reality of Neandertal Symbolic Behavior at the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, France
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{"title"=>"The reality of neandertal symbolic behavior at the grotte du renne, arcy-sur-cure, france", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"François", "last_name"=>"Caron", "scopus_author_id"=>"36878006100"}, {"first_name"=>"Francesco", "last_name"=>"d'Errico", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006208824"}, {"first_name"=>"Pierre", "last_name"=>"Del Moral", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004048888"}, {"first_name"=>"Frédéric", "last_name"=>"Santos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202141340"}, {"first_name"=>"João", "last_name"=>"Zilhão", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603255535"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362032504", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021545", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959687349", "pmid"=>"21738702", "sgr"=>"79959687349"}, "id"=>"1eedcefe-7a77-38e5-a55b-220932e927ef", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The question of whether symbolically mediated behavior is exclusive to modern humans or shared with anatomically archaic populations such as the Neandertals is hotly debated. At the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, France, the Châtelperronian levels contain Neandertal remains and large numbers of personal ornaments, decorated bone tools and colorants, but it has been suggested that this association reflects intrusion of the symbolic artifacts from the overlying Protoaurignacian and/or of the Neandertal remains from the underlying Mousterian.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested these hypotheses against the horizontal and vertical distributions of the various categories of diagnostic finds and statistically assessed the probability that the Châtelperronian levels are of mixed composition. Our results reject that the associations result from large or small scale, localized or generalized post-depositional displacement, and they imply that incomplete sample decontamination is the parsimonious explanation for the stratigraphic anomalies seen in the radiocarbon dating of the sequence.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The symbolic artifacts in the Châtelperronian of the Grotte du Renne are indeed Neandertal material culture.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reality-neandertal-symbolic-behavior-grotte-du-renne-arcysurcure-france", "reader_count"=>149, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>34, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>34, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>56, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>40, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>40}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>56}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Denmark"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760004"], "description"=>"<p>Personal ornaments made of perforated and grooved teeth (1–6, 11), bones (7–8, 10) and a fossil (9); red (12–14) and black (15–16) colorants bearing facets produced by grinding; bone awls (17–23). 1–9 courtesy of M. Vanhaeren, 12–16 courtesy of H. Salomon, 17–23 modified after <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545#pone.0021545-dErrico3\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["du"], "article_id"=>430381, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>55, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grotte_du_Renne_Ch_226_telperronian_symbolic_artifacts_/430381", "title"=>"Grotte du Renne, Châtelperronian symbolic artifacts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:06:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760293"], "description"=>"<p>Top: in Protoaurignacian level VII. Bottom: in Châtelperronian level X. The areas in grey are hearths.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["du", "ornaments", "pigment"], "article_id"=>430663, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grotte_du_Renne_distribution_of_bone_awls_ornaments_and_pigment_processing_tools_/430663", "title"=>"Grotte du Renne, distribution of bone awls, ornaments and pigment processing tools.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:11:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760781"], "description"=>"<p>*In order to simplify, and also because inventories of the different find categories are unavailable for them, levels VI and above are not considered here.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["du", "stratigraphic"], "article_id"=>431156, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grotte_du_Renne_Stratigraphic_distribution_of_key_finds_/431156", "title"=>"Grotte du Renne. Stratigraphic distribution of key finds<sup>*</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:19:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760746"], "description"=>"<p>Stratigraphic distribution of colorants (by weight, in grams) at Grotte du Renne; data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545#pone.0021545-Couraud1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["colorants", "grotte", "du"], "article_id"=>431119, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stratigraphic_distribution_of_colorants_by_weight_in_grams_at_Grotte_du_Renne_data_from_27_/431119", "title"=>"Stratigraphic distribution of colorants (by weight, in grams) at Grotte du Renne; data from [27].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:18:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760438"], "description"=>"<p>In the plan (above), the black circles are diagnostic teeth, the white circles are teeth whose features are consistent with (but do not prove) assignment to the Neandertals, the white square is the immature temporal bone, and the red lines indicate the position of the stratigraphic profiles shown middle and bottom.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neandertal", "remains", "levels", "grotte", "du"], "article_id"=>430809, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_the_Neandertal_remains_in_Ch_telperronian_levels_VIII_X_of_the_Grotte_du_Renne_after_5_19_modified_/430809", "title"=>"Distribution of the Neandertal remains in Châtelperronian levels VIII–X of the Grotte du Renne; after [<b>5]</b>, [19<b> </b>], modified.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:13:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760648"], "description"=>"<p>Levels VIII–X are Châtelperronian.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphic", "provenience", "radiocarbon", "dates", "grotte", "du"], "article_id"=>431013, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_age_mean_value_and_2_confidence_interval_against_stratigraphic_provenience_of_the_new_radiocarbon_dates_for_the_Grotte_du_Renne_data_from_20_/431013", "title"=>"Plot of age (mean value and 2σ confidence interval) against stratigraphic provenience of the new radiocarbon dates for the Grotte du Renne; data from [<b>20</b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:16:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760151"], "description"=>"<p>Left: personal ornaments from Châtelperronian levels VIII–X plotted against the most densely occupied area of Protoaurignacian level VII. Right: Neandertal remains from Châtelperronian levels VIII–X plotted against the habitation features in level X. The areas in grey are hearths.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["du", "renne"], "article_id"=>430527, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grotte_du_Renne_distributions_/430527", "title"=>"Grotte du Renne distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:08:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760533"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545#pone.0021545-Couraud1\" target=\"_blank\">[<b>27</b>]</a><b>.</b> Top left, all colors (14,580 g); top right, red (10,520 g); bottom left, black (3,961 g); bottom right, yellow (99.6 g). Bubble sizes reflect the relative frequency per grid unit and were calculated by assigning the following values to the four weight classes given in the data source: [0.1–10 g]  = 10 g; [10–50 g]  = 50 g; [50–100 g];  = 100 g; [>100 g]  = 150 g. Major concentrations are apparent despite the smoothing of the distributions caused by the quantification procedure and they coincide with the habitation features. The grey areas are hearths.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["colorants", "sublevels"], "article_id"=>430905, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_distribution_of_colorants_by_weight_in_Ch_226_telperronian_level_X_all_sublevels_included_data_from_/430905", "title"=>"Spatial distribution of colorants by weight in Châtelperronian level X (all sublevels included); data from", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:15:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382621", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382735", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382789", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382836", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382868", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382911", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382941"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The question of whether symbolically mediated behavior is exclusive to modern humans or shared with anatomically archaic populations such as the Neandertals is hotly debated. At the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, France, the Châtelperronian levels contain Neandertal remains and large numbers of personal ornaments, decorated bone tools and colorants, but it has been suggested that this association reflects intrusion of the symbolic artifacts from the overlying Protoaurignacian and/or of the Neandertal remains from the underlying Mousterian.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We tested these hypotheses against the horizontal and vertical distributions of the various categories of diagnostic finds and statistically assessed the probability that the Châtelperronian levels are of mixed composition. Our results reject that the associations result from large or small scale, localized or generalized post-depositional displacement, and they imply that incomplete sample decontamination is the parsimonious explanation for the stratigraphic anomalies seen in the radiocarbon dating of the sequence.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The symbolic artifacts in the Châtelperronian of the Grotte du Renne are indeed Neandertal material culture.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neandertal", "grotte", "du", "france"], "article_id"=>135577, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["François Caron", "Francesco d'Errico", "Pierre Del Moral", "Frédéric Santos", "João Zilhão"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021545.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>54, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Reality_of_Neandertal_Symbolic_Behavior_at_the_Grotte_du_Renne_Arcy_sur_Cure_France/135577", "title"=>"The Reality of Neandertal Symbolic Behavior at the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, France", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 01:32:57"}

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Relative Metric

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