The Age of the 20 Meter Solo River Terrace, Java, Indonesia and the Survival of Homo erectus in Asia
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{"title"=>"The age of the 20 meter Solo River Terrace, Java, Indonesia and the survival of homo erectus in Asia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Etty", "last_name"=>"Indriati", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508272929"}, {"first_name"=>"Carl C.", "last_name"=>"Swisher", "scopus_author_id"=>"35499926000"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher", "last_name"=>"Lepre", "scopus_author_id"=>"56628358400"}, {"first_name"=>"Rhonda L.", "last_name"=>"Quinn", "scopus_author_id"=>"36916784300"}, {"first_name"=>"Rusyad A.", "last_name"=>"Suriyanto", "scopus_author_id"=>"41762717000"}, {"first_name"=>"Agus T.", "last_name"=>"Hascaryo", "scopus_author_id"=>"41761663500"}, {"first_name"=>"Rainer", "last_name"=>"Grün", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005143323"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig S.", "last_name"=>"Feibel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603873935"}, {"first_name"=>"Briana L.", "last_name"=>"Pobiner", "scopus_author_id"=>"16319816400"}, {"first_name"=>"Maxime", "last_name"=>"Aubert", "scopus_author_id"=>"16028043000"}, {"first_name"=>"Wendy", "last_name"=>"Lees", "scopus_author_id"=>"35198429200"}, {"first_name"=>"Susan C.", "last_name"=>"Antón", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005809473"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959630414", "sgr"=>"79959630414", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021562", "pmid"=>"21738710", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"362031244"}, "id"=>"f1a5ad9d-8bb5-31cb-a52d-1dd48f6ad88b", "abstract"=>"Homo erectus was the first human lineage to disperse widely throughout the Old World, the only hominin in Asia through much of the Pleistocene, and was likely ancestral to H. sapiens. The demise of this taxon remains obscure because of uncertainties regarding the geological age of its youngest populations. In 1996, some of us co-published electron spin resonance (ESR) and uranium series (U-series) results indicating an age as young as 35-50 ka for the late H. erectus sites of Ngandong and Sambungmacan and the faunal site of Jigar (Indonesia). If correct, these ages favor an African origin for recent humans who would overlap with H. erectus in time and space. Here, we report (40)Ar/(39)Ar incremental heating analyses and new ESR/U-series age estimates from the \"20 m terrace\" at Ngandong and Jigar. Both data sets are internally consistent and provide no evidence for reworking, yet they are inconsistent with one another. The (40)Ar/(39)Ar analyses give an average age of 546±12 ka (sd±5 se) for both sites, the first reliable radiometric indications of a middle Pleistocene component for the terrace. Given the technical accuracy and consistency of the analyses, the argon ages represent either the actual age or the maximum age for the terrace and are significantly older than previous estimates. Most of the ESR/U-series results are older as well, but the oldest that meets all modeling criteria is 143 ka+20/-17. Most samples indicated leaching of uranium and likely represent either the actual or the minimum age of the terrace. Given known sources of error, the U-series results could be consistent with a middle Pleistocene age. However, the ESR and (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages preclude one another. Regardless, the age of the sites and hominins is at least bracketed between these estimates and is older than currently accepted.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/age-20-meter-solo-river-terrace-java-indonesia-survival-homo-erectus-asia", "reader_count"=>76, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Arts and Humanities"=>10, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>19}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>19}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>10}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>5, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761068"], "description"=>"<p>JG sections, NG-A1 and NG-B1 this study, NG-B2 after GMU excavations. JG-A2 is adjacent to the 2006 Jigar excavations, the ESR and U-series samples come from the equivalent of these gravels. The stratigraphy is discussed in greater detail in the Supplemental Information in reference to this figure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphic", "sections", "jigar", "ngandong", "trenches"], "article_id"=>431431, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Etty Indriati", "Carl C. Swisher III", "Christopher Lepre", "Rhonda L. Quinn", "Rusyad A. Suriyanto", "Agus T. Hascaryo", "Rainer Grün", "Craig S. Feibel", "Briana L. Pobiner", "Maxime Aubert", "Wendy Lees", "Susan C. Antón"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sample_stratigraphic_sections_from_Jigar_JG_and_Ngandong_NG_trenches_and_excavations_/431431", "title"=>"Sample stratigraphic sections from Jigar (JG) and Ngandong (NG) trenches and excavations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:23:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382334", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382363", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382385", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382466"], "description"=>"<div><p><em>Homo erectus</em> was the first human lineage to disperse widely throughout the Old World, the only hominin in Asia through much of the Pleistocene, and was likely ancestral to <em>H. sapiens</em>. The demise of this taxon remains obscure because of uncertainties regarding the geological age of its youngest populations. In 1996, some of us co-published electron spin resonance (ESR) and uranium series (U-series) results indicating an age as young as 35–50 ka for the late <em>H. erectus</em> sites of Ngandong and Sambungmacan and the faunal site of Jigar (Indonesia). If correct, these ages favor an African origin for recent humans who would overlap with <em>H. erectus</em> in time and space. Here, we report <sup>40</sup>Ar/<sup>39</sup>Ar incremental heating analyses and new ESR/U-series age estimates from the “20 m terrace\" at Ngandong and Jigar. Both data sets are internally consistent and provide no evidence for reworking, yet they are inconsistent with one another. The <sup>40</sup>Ar/<sup>39</sup>Ar analyses give an average age of 546±12 ka (sd±5 se) for both sites, the first reliable radiometric indications of a middle Pleistocene component for the terrace. Given the technical accuracy and consistency of the analyses, the argon ages represent either the actual age or the maximum age for the terrace and are significantly older than previous estimates. Most of the ESR/U-series results are older as well, but the oldest that meets all modeling criteria is 143 ka+20/−17. Most samples indicated leaching of uranium and likely represent either the actual or the minimum age of the terrace. Given known sources of error, the U-series results could be consistent with a middle Pleistocene age. However, the ESR and <sup>40</sup>Ar/<sup>39</sup>Ar ages preclude one another. Regardless, the age of the sites and hominins is at least bracketed between these estimates and is older than currently accepted.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["20", "solo", "indonesia", "asia"], "article_id"=>135528, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Etty Indriati", "Carl C. Swisher III", "Christopher Lepre", "Rhonda L. Quinn", "Rusyad A. Suriyanto", "Agus T. Hascaryo", "Rainer Grün", "Craig S. Feibel", "Briana L. Pobiner", "Maxime Aubert", "Wendy Lees", "Susan C. Antón"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>31, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Age_of_the_20_Meter_Solo_River_Terrace_Java_Indonesia_and_the_Survival_of_Homo_erectus_in_Asia/135528", "title"=>"The Age of the 20 Meter Solo River Terrace, Java, Indonesia and the Survival of <em>Homo erectus</em> in Asia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 01:32:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760685"], "description"=>"<p>Contour map of Ngandong (modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562#pone.0021562-Moelyadi1\" target=\"_blank\">[<b>38</b>]</a>) with locations of previous excavations [Dutch, Gadjah Mada University (GMU), and Indonesian-Japanese (IJ)], geological trenches (squares) and sample locations of pumice samples (P; this study).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ngandong", "locations", "excavations", "gadjah", "mada", "indonesian-japanese", "geological", "trenches", "pumice", "samples"], "article_id"=>431029, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Etty Indriati", "Carl C. Swisher III", "Christopher Lepre", "Rhonda L. Quinn", "Rusyad A. Suriyanto", "Agus T. Hascaryo", "Rainer Grün", "Craig S. Feibel", "Briana L. Pobiner", "Maxime Aubert", "Wendy Lees", "Susan C. Antón"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>47, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contour_map_of_Ngandong_modified_from_38_with_locations_of_previous_excavations_Dutch_Gadjah_Mada_University_GMU_and_Indonesian_Japanese_IJ_geological_trenches_squares_and_sample_locations_of_pumice_samples_P_this_study_/431029", "title"=>"Contour map of Ngandong (modified from [<b>38</b>]) with locations of previous excavations [Dutch, Gadjah Mada University (GMU), and Indonesian-Japanese (IJ)], geological trenches (squares) and sample locations of pumice samples (P; this study).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:17:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760820"], "description"=>"<p>Contour map of Jigar (base map and latitude/longitude coordinates after J.P. U.S. Army Map Service topographic square 63-046) with locations of Gadjah Mada University (GMU) and this study (SoRT) excavations (triangle), geological trenches (squares) and sample locations of pumice samples (P; this study).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["jigar", "coordinates", "topographic", "locations", "gadjah", "mada", "excavations", "geological", "trenches", "pumice", "samples"], "article_id"=>431170, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Etty Indriati", "Carl C. Swisher III", "Christopher Lepre", "Rhonda L. Quinn", "Rusyad A. Suriyanto", "Agus T. Hascaryo", "Rainer Grün", "Craig S. Feibel", "Briana L. Pobiner", "Maxime Aubert", "Wendy Lees", "Susan C. Antón"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contour_map_of_Jigar_base_map_and_latitude_longitude_coordinates_after_J_P_U_S_Army_Map_Service_topographic_square_63_046_with_locations_of_Gadjah_Mada_University_GMU_and_this_study_SoRT_excavations_triangle_geological_trenches_squares_and_sample_locatio/431170", "title"=>"Contour map of Jigar (base map and latitude/longitude coordinates after J.P. U.S. Army Map Service topographic square 63-046) with locations of Gadjah Mada University (GMU) and this study (SoRT) excavations (triangle), geological trenches (squares) and sample locations of pumice samples (P; this study).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:19:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760521"], "description"=>"<p>Map of Java showing location of study area (boxed) adjacent to Solo River and a contour map of Ngandong and Jigar localities (base map and latitude/longitude coordinates after J.P. U.S. Army Map Service topographic square 63-046).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["java", "adjacent", "solo", "contour", "ngandong", "jigar", "localities", "coordinates", "topographic"], "article_id"=>430863, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Etty Indriati", "Carl C. Swisher III", "Christopher Lepre", "Rhonda L. Quinn", "Rusyad A. Suriyanto", "Agus T. Hascaryo", "Rainer Grün", "Craig S. Feibel", "Briana L. Pobiner", "Maxime Aubert", "Wendy Lees", "Susan C. Antón"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_Java_showing_location_of_study_area_boxed_adjacent_to_Solo_River_and_a_contour_map_of_Ngandong_and_Jigar_localities_base_map_and_latitude_longitude_coordinates_after_J_P_U_S_Army_Map_Service_topographic_square_63_046_/430863", "title"=>"Map of Java showing location of study area (boxed) adjacent to Solo River and a contour map of Ngandong and Jigar localities (base map and latitude/longitude coordinates after J.P. U.S. Army Map Service topographic square 63-046).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:14:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760939"], "description"=>"<p>At Ngandong, especially in the area in the vicinity of the GMU and Dutch Ingraving 2 excavations, the original erosional basal channel morphology of the 20 meter terrace cut into the Kalibeng is well exposed showing a gradual rise away from the modern Solo River after ascending abruptly from the present river level. Moreover, each of the components of the fluvial association is placed at discrete altimetric positions relative to the water level of the modern river with facies changes at defined distances lateral to the channel (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562#pone-0021562-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>). In our excavations and geotrenches at Ngandong and Jigar, vertebrate remains occur primarily in the basal lag and bar deposits; that is in the lower meter of a 3 to 5 m veneer of fluvial sediments overlying the erosional bench cut into the marine Kalibeng Formation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["composite", "sedimentary", "geology", "ngandong", "jigar", "denoting", "stratigraphic", "positions", "fossil", "dated"], "article_id"=>431287, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Etty Indriati", "Carl C. Swisher III", "Christopher Lepre", "Rhonda L. Quinn", "Rusyad A. Suriyanto", "Agus T. Hascaryo", "Rainer Grün", "Craig S. Feibel", "Briana L. Pobiner", "Maxime Aubert", "Wendy Lees", "Susan C. Antón"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalized_composite_sedimentary_geology_of_the_Ngandong_and_Jigar_20_meter_terrace_denoting_stratigraphic_positions_of_Homo_erectus_fossil_material_and_dated_pumices_/431287", "title"=>"Generalized composite sedimentary geology of the Ngandong and Jigar “20 meter terrace\" denoting stratigraphic positions of <i>Homo erectus</i> fossil material and dated pumices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:21:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761263"], "description"=>"a<p>De = Dose; EU: Early U-uptake (closed system); LU: Linear U-uptake; US-ESR: combined U-series/ESR age estimate <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562#pone.0021562-Grn5\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>, MV = Model violations (closed system U-series between EU and LU ESR ages), Leach: U-series age ≫LU (ESR); For the full data set, underlying assumptions, and model calculation references see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562#pone.0021562.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["esr", "u-series", "jigar", "excavations"], "article_id"=>431621, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Etty Indriati", "Carl C. Swisher III", "Christopher Lepre", "Rhonda L. Quinn", "Rusyad A. Suriyanto", "Agus T. Hascaryo", "Rainer Grün", "Craig S. Feibel", "Briana L. Pobiner", "Maxime Aubert", "Wendy Lees", "Susan C. Antón"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_Results_for_ESR_and_U_series_for_Jigar_excavations_in_2006_a_/431621", "title"=>"Summary Results for ESR and U-series for Jigar excavations in 2006<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:27:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/761164"], "description"=>"<p>Incremental heating spectra for Ngandong (upper graphs) and Jigar (lowest graph) pumices.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["heating", "spectra", "ngandong", "jigar"], "article_id"=>431524, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Etty Indriati", "Carl C. Swisher III", "Christopher Lepre", "Rhonda L. Quinn", "Rusyad A. Suriyanto", "Agus T. Hascaryo", "Rainer Grün", "Craig S. Feibel", "Briana L. Pobiner", "Maxime Aubert", "Wendy Lees", "Susan C. Antón"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Incremental_heating_spectra_for_Ngandong_upper_graphs_and_Jigar_lowest_graph_pumices_/431524", "title"=>"Incremental heating spectra for Ngandong (upper graphs) and Jigar (lowest graph) pumices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:25:24"}

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